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cell dish icon Ras Pathway


Ras is a small GTPase and is a member of the G protein (guanine nucleotide binding protein) family. GTPases serve as molecular switches that transmit signals within the cell. GTPases have an active (GTP) and inactive (GDP) state, regulated by the addition and removal of a phosphate group. Under normal physiological conditions GTPases play prominent roles in signaling pathways regulating cell migration, survival, adhesion, growth, and differentiation.

ras activation image
Schematic of Ras signaling cascade that starts at the plasma membrane.

Cancer Impact

Ras is ubiquitously expressed in all cells and all tissues. Ras can activate a variety of pathways, which ultimately turn on genes involved in cell growth, differentiation and survival. Ras is essential for regulating the growth of the cell, however when mutations occur in the Ras gene it can be stuck in a constitutively active form, constantly activating pathways for cell growth and potentially leading to cancer. Constitutively active Ras is the most common oncogene in human cancer, found in around 20-25% of all human cancers.

Ras Pathway Plasmids

Click on a name to find available plasmids for the gene, or browse the gene list below. For proteins with multiple subunits or isoforms, individual links to each gene page are provided below. Color is used for clarity and does not indicate a specific relationship.

The content and map for this page were generated with the help of Dominic Esposito and the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research .

Color is used for clarity and does not indicate a specific relationship.

The content and map for this page were generated with the help of Dominic Esposito and the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research .

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

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Ras Pathway - Gene List

Click on a name to find available plasmids for the gene. For components with multiple subunits or isoforms, individual links to each gene page are provided below.

Symbol Name
AKT v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 3
ALK Anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase
ARHGAP35 Rho GTPase activating protein 35
ARHGEF2 Rho/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2
CCND Cyclin D
CDK Cyclin-dependent kinase
CNKSR Connector enhancer of kinase suppressor of Ras
CYTH2 Cytohesin 2
DUSP Dual specificity phosphatase
E2F E2F transcription factor
ECT2 Epithelial cell transforming 2
EGFR Epidermal growth factor receptor
EIF4EBP Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein
ERBB2 Erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2
ERK Also known as MAPK; Mitogen-activated protein kinase
ETS ETS proto-oncogene, transcription factor
EXOC Exocyst complex component
FGFR Fibroblast growth factor receptor
FLT3 Fms related tyrosine kinase 3
FNT Farnesyltransferase, CAAX box
FOS FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog
GRB2 Growth factor receptor bound protein 2
ICMT Isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase
INSR Insulin receptor
INSRR Insulin receptor-related receptor
IRS Insulin receptor substrate
JUN Jun proto-oncogene
KSR Kinase suppressor of ras
MDM2 MDM2 proto-oncogene
MEK Also known as MAP2K; Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase
MET MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase
MLST8 MTOR associated protein, LST8 homolog
MTOR Mechanistic target of rapamycin
NF1 Neurofibromin 1
NFE2L2 Nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2
NFKB1 Nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1
PAK p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase
PDGFR Platelet derived growth factor receptor
PDPK1 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase 1
PEBP1 Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein 1
PIK3 Also known as PI3K; Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic and regulatory subunits - Class I
PIN1 Peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerase, NIMA-interacting 1
PLXNB1 Plexin B1
PPP1CA Protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit alpha
PREX2 Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchange factor 2
PRKA Protein kinase AMP-activated:
A1,A2: Catalytic subunit alpha

B1,B2: non-catalytic subunit beta

G1, G2, G3: non-catalytic subunit gamma
PTEN Phosphatase and tensin homolog
RAC Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac)
RAF Serine/threonine kinases:
A-Raf proto-oncogene
B-Raf proto-oncogene
Raf-1 proto-oncogene
RAL v-ral simian leukemia viral oncogene homolog (ras related)
RALBP1 RalA binding protein 1
RALGDS Ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator
RAPGEF Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor
Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog
Muscle RAS oncogene homolog
Neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog
RASA RAS p21 protein activator
RASAL RAS protein activator like
RASGRF Ras protein specific guanine nucleotide releasing factor
RASGRP RAS guanyl releasing protein
RASSF Ras association domain family member
RB1 Retinoblastoma 1
RCE1 Ras converting CAAX endopeptidase 1
RHEB Ras homolog enriched in brain
RHO Ras homolog family member
ROCK Rho associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase
ROS1 ROS proto-oncogene 1, receptor tyrosine kinase
RPS6KA Ribosomal protein S6 kinase
RPS6KB Ribosomal protein S6 kinase B1
RPTOR Regulatory associated protein of MTOR, complex 1
SAV1 Salvador family WW domain containing protein 1
SCRIB Scribbled planar cell polarity protein
SHC SHC (Src homology 2 domain containing) transforming protein
SHOC2 SHOC2 leucine-rich repeat scaffold protein
SOS SOS Ras/Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor
SPRED Sprouty related, EVH1 domain containing
SPRY Sprouty RTK signaling antagonist
STK Serine/threonine kinase
STK11 Serine/threonine kinase 11
TBK1 TANK binding kinase 1
TFDP Transcription factor Dp
TIAM T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis
TP53 Tumor protein p53
TSC Tuberous sclerosis
VAV1 Vav guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1
YAP1 Yes associated protein 1

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  • RAS Pathway Clone Collection 2.0:Set of vectors from the Esposito Lab for use with the Gateway® Cloning Platform (Life Technologies™) to permit construction of RAS pathway gene expression vectors for in vitro and in vivo research.

  • The RAS Initiative- at the National Cancer Institute (NCI)


Ras oncogenes and their downstream targets. Rajalingam K, Schreck R, Rapp UR, Albert S. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007 Aug;1773(8):1177-95. PubMed PMID: 17428555 .

RAS signaling pathways, mutations and their role in colorectal cancer. Zenonos K, Kyprianou K. World J Gastrointest Oncol. 2013 May 15; 5(5): 97–101. doi: 10.4251/wjgo.v5.i5.97. PubMed PMID: 23799159 .

Targeting RAS signalling pathways in cancer therapy. Downward J. Nat Rev Cancer. 2003 Jan;3(1):11-22. PubMed PMID: 12509763 .

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