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Fluorescent Proteins: Biosensors


Fluorescent biosensors are proteins designed so that their fluorescent properties are sensitive to the presence of specific molecules or other factors. Most often, a conformational change in the sensing region of the construct leads to a change in signal intensity of a circularly permuted fluorescent protein (cpFP) or Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency of a pair of fluorescent proteins. Genetically encoded biosensors can be introduced into cells, tissues, or organisms for long-term imaging and can be designed to specifically localize to cellular compartments or organelles. Addgene’s database includes many fluorescent biosensors that signal the presence of specific biomolecules, the activity of specific genes and cellular processes, or other factors.

With proper experimental design, biosensors can enable investigation of a signaling pathway or measurement of a biomolecule while largely preserving spatial and temporal cellular processes. Note that many of the articles linked below include variants with different binding affinities or negative-control constructs used to characterize the sensor's behavior in the target system. Use care when applying a biosensor in a novel context or modifying an existing construct, as fluorescence can be affected by environmental factors and the sensor behavior may differ from the original characterization (e.g. in vitro vs. in vivo, cytoplasmic vs. extracellular vs. organelle-localized, etc.).

We also offer ready-to-use AAV preparations of select plasmids; these are noted with the viral service icon .


Metal Ions

Target Description Article PI
Calcium jGCaMP8 Fast Genetically Encoded Calcium Indicators (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) jGCaMP8 Fast Genetically Encoded Calcium Indicators. Janelia Research Campus. Online resource. 2020 GENIE Project
Calcium jGCaMP7 High-performance GFP-based calcium indicators (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) High-performance calcium sensors for imaging activity in neuronal populations and microcompartments. Nat Methods. 2019 Jul;16(7):649-657. Douglas Kim, GENIE Project
Calcium Astrocyte expression of jGCaMP7b Using Genetically Encoded Calcium Indicators to Study Astrocyte Physiology: A Field Guide. Front Cell Neurosci. 2021 Jun 11;15:690147. Thomas Oertner
Calcium jGCaMP7b Calcium indicator (Flp-dependent) Limited functional convergence of eye-specific inputs in the retinogeniculate pathway of the mouse. Neuron. 2021 Aug 4;109(15):2457-2468.e12. Tobias Bonhoeffer, Mark Huebener, Tobias Rose
Calcium jGCaMP7 calcium sensors for Drosophila (LexA or Gal4 activated expression) GENIE Drosophila Calcium Sensors 2021 GENIE Project
Calcium Soma-targeted expression of GCaMP7f or GCaMP6f Precision Calcium Imaging of Dense Neural Populations via a Cell-Body-Targeted Calcium Indicator. Neuron. 2020 Jun 26. pii: S0896-6273(20)30398-6. Edward Boyden
Calcium Bicistronic vector expressing GCaMP6 and mRuby2 for imaging neural activity (GCaMP6f/m/s) (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) Cell-specific restoration of stimulus preference after monocular deprivation in the visual cortex. Science. 2016 Jun 10;352(6291):1319-22. Tobias Bonhoeffer, Mark Huebener, Tobias Rose
Calcium GCaMP6f/s Ca sensors and separate nuclear localized dTomato fluorophore Ting Lab GCaMP6 Plasmids 2014 Jonathan Ting
Calcium Expresses polyubiquitin GCaMP6s for live calcium imaging in A. aegypti mosquitoes Live calcium imaging of Aedes aegypti neuronal tissues reveals differential importance of chemosensory systems for life-history-specific foraging strategies. BMC Neurosci. 2019 Jun 17;20(1):27. Omar Akbari
Calcium Expresses GCaMP6f (Flp-dependent) A role for the locus coeruleus in the modulation of feeding. bioRxiv 2019 Patricia Jensen
Calcium Updated calcium sensors for imaging neural activity (GCaMP6f/m/s) (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) Ultrasensitive fluorescent proteins for imaging neuronal activity. Nature. 2013 Jul 18;499(7458):295-300. Douglas Kim, GENIE Project
Calcium Intersectional viral expression of GCaMP6m/s in cells depdent on Cre, Flp, or Vcre Comprehensive Dual- and Triple-Feature Intersectional Single-Vector Delivery of Diverse Functional Payloads to Cells of Behaving Mammals. Neuron. 2020 Jun 20. pii: S0896-6273(20)30432-3. Karl Deisseroth, INTRSECT 2.0 Project
Calcium Expression of GCaMP6f in PV cortical interneurons under the control of the E2 regulatory element Viral manipulation of functionally distinct interneurons in mice, non-human primates and humans. Nat Neurosci. 2020 Dec;23(12):1629-1636. Jordane Dimidschstein
Calcium Enriched expression of GCaMP6s or GCaMP6f in axons (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) In vivo measurement of afferent activity with axon-specific calcium imaging. Nat Neurosci. 2018 Sep;21(9):1272-1280. Lin Tian
Calcium Expression of GCaMP6s or GCaMP7b sensors fused to synaptophysin (Cre or Flp-dependent) Larsen Lab AAV GCaMP6 Plasmids Rylan Larsen
Calcium Calcium sensor in astrocytes (GCaMP6f), cytosolic Conditions and constraints for astrocyte calcium signaling in the hippocampal mossy fiber pathway. Neuron. 2014 Apr 16;82(2):413-29. Baljit Khakh
Calcium Calcium sensor in astrocytes (GCaMP6f), membrane-tethered Khakh Lab pZac2.1 gfaABC1D-lck-GCaMP6f Plasmid Baljit Khakh
Calcium Axon-specific calcium imaging (GCaMP6f/m/s) (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) In vivo measurement of afferent activity with axon-specific calcium imaging. Nat Neurosci. 2018 Sep;21(9):1272-1280. Lin Tian
Calcium GCaMP6f for mammalian or viral expression Wilson Lab Penn Vector Core Plasmid James M Wilson
Calcium GCaMP6s for mammalian or viral expression Wilson Lab AAV Plasmid James M Wilson
Calcium Expression of both PROPS voltage indicator and GCaMP6f calcium sensor for bacteria Kralj lab Constitutive Bacterial Electrophysiology Plasmids Joel Kralj
Calcium Target a GCaMP6s cassette into the mouse TIGRE locus (Cre-dependent) A Suite of Transgenic Driver and Reporter Mouse Lines with Enhanced Brain-Cell-Type Targeting and Functionality. Cell. 2018 Jul 12;174(2):465-480.e22. Hongkui Zeng
Calcium Plasma membrane targeted GCaMP6s calcium sensor A polarized Ca(2+), diacylglycerol and STIM1 signalling system regulates directed cell migration. Nat Cell Biol. 2014 Feb;16(2):133-44. Tobias Meyer
Calcium Cytosolic GCaMP6F, mitochondria Mitycam, or ER targeted GCaMPer Multiplexed Optical Sensors in Arrayed Islands of Cells for multimodal recordings of cellular physiology. Nat Commun. 2020 Aug 4;11(1):3881. Adam Cohen
Calcium GCaMP6f expression in forebrain GABA-ergic interneurons under the control of the mDlx enhancer A viral strategy for targeting and manipulating interneurons across vertebrate species. Nat Neurosci. 2016 Oct 31. Gordon Fishell
Calcium Improved genetic encoded calcium sensor GCaMP-X Improved calcium sensor GCaMP-X overcomes the calcium channel perturbations induced by the calmodulin in GCaMP. Nat Commun. 2018 Apr 17;9(1):1504. Xiaodong Liu
Calcium Calcium indicator for neural activity imaging (GCaMP5G) Optimization of a GCaMP calcium indicator for neural activity imaging. J Neurosci. 2012 Oct 3;32(40):13819-40. Douglas Kim, Loren Looger, GENIE Project
Calcium GCaMP5G calcium sensor targeted to mitochondria or presynaptic terminal LKB1 Regulates Mitochondria-Dependent Presynaptic Calcium Clearance and Neurotransmitter Release Properties at Excitatory Synapses along Cortical Axons. PLoS Biol. 2016 Jul 18;14(7):e1002516. Franck Polleux
Calcium Fast response calcium sensors (GCaMP3-derived) Fast-Response Calmodulin-Based Fluorescent Indicators Reveal Rapid Intracellular Calcium Dynamics. Sci Rep. 2015 Nov 3;5:15978. Katalin Torok
Calcium Twitch calcium indicator, based on C-terminal domain of troponin C Griesbeck Lab Twitch Plasmids Oliver Griesbeck
Calcium erGAP3 (GFP-Aequorin Protein) for imaging of Ca+ dynamics in endoplasmic reticulum GFP-Aequorin Protein Sensor for Ex Vivo and In Vivo Imaging of Ca Dynamics in High-Ca Organelles. Cell Chem Biol. 2016 Jun 1. pii: S2451-9456(16)30163-5. Teresa Alonso, Javier García-Sancho
Calcium Large palette of genetically encoded Calcium indicators (GECOs) An Expanded Palette of Genetically Encoded Ca2+ Indicators. Science. 2011 Sep 8. Robert Campbell
Calcium FRET-based tdTomato-mAmetrine1.2 Calcium sensors Forster resonance energy transfer-based biosensors for multiparameter ratiometric imaging of Ca2+ dynamics and caspase-3 activity in single cells. Anal Chem. 2011 Dec 15;83(24):9687-93. Robert Campbell
Calcium D and D2 family Cameleon calcium sensors Bcl-2-mediated alterations in endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ analyzed with an improved genetically encoded fluorescent sensor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Dec 14;101(50):17404-9.

Ca2+ indicators based on computationally redesigned calmodulin-peptide pairs. Chem Biol. 2006 May;13(5):521-30.
Amy Palmer, Roger Tsien
Calcium Ratiometric fluorescent calcium indicator Salsa6f (tdTomato linked to GCaMP6f) T-cell calcium dynamics visualized in a ratiometric tdTomato-GCaMP6f transgenic reporter mouse. Elife. 2017 Dec 14;6. pii: 32417. Michael Cahalan
Calcium ER calcium sensor (GCaMPer) A Low Affinity GCaMP3 Variant (GCaMPer) for Imaging the Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Store. PLoS One. 2015 Oct 9;10(10):e0139273. Adam Cohen, Brandon Harvey
Calcium Turquoise genetically encoded calcium sensor (GECI) that reports with lifetime and intensity changes A turquoise fluorescence lifetime-based biosensor for quantitative imaging of intracellular calcium. Nat Commun. 2021 Dec 9;12(1):7159. Dorus Gadella
Calcium Ratiometric calcium biosensors from a nested reporters of green- and orange-emitting proteins Ratiometric Matryoshka biosensors from a nested cassette of green- and orange-emitting fluorescent proteins. Nat Commun. 2017 Sep 5;8(1):431. Wolf Frommer
Calcium Red-, yellow-, or cyan-emitting homoFRET/anisotropy Cameleon calcium sensors Single-color, ratiometric biosensors for detecting signaling activities in live cells. Elife. 2018 Jul 3;7. Jin Zhang
Calcium ER or mitochondria-targeted CEPIA calcium sensors (green, red or blue/green) Imaging intraorganellar Ca(2+) at subcellular resolution using CEPIA. Nat Commun. 2014 Jun 13;5:4153. Masamitsu Iino
Calcium Red fluorescent calcium sensors (GCaMP1/2, GECO1/2) The kinetic mechanisms of fast-decay red-fluorescent genetically encoded calcium indicators. J Biol Chem. 2019 Mar 15;294(11):3934-3946. Katalin Torok
Calcium Bacterial expression of red Ca2+ sensors (jRCaMP1a and GECO1 variants) Understanding the Fluorescence Change in Red Genetically Encoded Calcium Ion Indicators. Biophys J. 2019 May 21;116(10):1873-1886. Robert Campbell, Thomas Hughes
Calcium Improved red Calcium indicators based on mRuby (jRCaMP1a, b) and mApple (jRGECO1a) (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) Sensitive red protein calcium indicators for imaging neural activity. Elife. 2016 Mar 24;5. pii: e12727. Douglas Kim, GENIE Project
Calcium Improved red Calcium sensor with brighter fluorescence and faster kinetics (CaMPARI2) Improved methods for marking active neuron populations. Nat Commun. 2018 Oct 25;9(1):4440. Eric Schreiter
Calcium AAV expression of photoconvertible fluorescent protein-based calcium integrator (CaMPARI) (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) Neural circuits. Labeling of active neural circuits in vivo with designed calcium integrators. Science. 2015 Feb 13;347(6223):755-60. Loren Looger, Eric Schreiter
Calcium Intersectional viral expression of sRGECO (constitutive or Cre- or Flp-dependent) Comprehensive Dual- and Triple-Feature Intersectional Single-Vector Delivery of Diverse Functional Payloads to Cells of Behaving Mammals. Neuron. 2020 Jun 20. pii: S0896-6273(20)30432-3. Karl Deisseroth, INTRSECT 2.0 Project
Calcium Mitochondrial and cytosolic RCaMP1h calcium sensors, ER-targeted CEPIA1er ER-mitochondria tethering by PDZD8 regulates Ca(2+) dynamics in mammalian neurons. Science. 2017 Nov 3;358(6363):623-630. Franck Polleux
Calcium Astrocyte AAV-mediated expression of jRCaMP1a, a red fluorescent calcium sensor protein Using Genetically Encoded Calcium Indicators to Study Astrocyte Physiology: A Field Guide. Front Cell Neurosci. 2021 Jun 11;15:690147. Thomas Oertner
Calcium Yellow protein calcium sensor jYCaMP1 variants (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) jYCaMP: an optimized calcium indicator for two-photon imaging at fiber laser wavelengths. Nat Methods. 2020 May 25. pii: 10.1038/s41592-020-0835-7. Kaspar Podgorski
Calcium BRET reporter of intracellular calcium (Venus-TnC-NanoLuc) Coupling optogenetic stimulation with NanoLuc-based luminescence (BRET) Ca++ sensing. Nat Commun. 2016 Oct 27;7:13268. Carl Johnson
Calcium HaloCaMP1 chemigenetic calcium indicator Bright and tunable far-red chemigenetic indicators. bioRxiv (2020) Eric Schreiter
Calcium SNAP-tag fusion for sensing ER calcium A genetically encoded ratiometric calcium sensor enables quantitative measurement of the local calcium microdomain in the endoplasmic reticulum. Biophys Rep (2019) 5, 31–42 Pingyong Xu
Magnesium Fluorescent Mg2+ sensor (MARIO) A Transient Rise in Free Mg(2+) Ions Released from ATP-Mg Hydrolysis Contributes to Mitotic Chromosome Condensation. Curr Biol. 2018 Feb 5;28(3):444-451.e6. Takeharu Nagai
Magnesium MagFRET-1 Mg2+ sensor, based on Cerulean/Citrine MagFRET: The First Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Mg(2+) Sensor. PLoS One. 2013 Dec 2;8(12):e82009. Maarten Merkx
Potassium Green fluorescence indicator of K+ for optical imaging (GINKO) Genetically encoded fluorescent indicators for imaging intracellular potassium ion concentration. Commun Biol. 2019 Jan 14;2:18. Robert Campbell
Zinc FRET-based zinc sensor for imaging in live cells (CALWY) Genetically encoded FRET sensors to monitor intracellular Zn(2+) homeostasis. Nat Methods. 2009 Oct;6(10):737-40. Maarten Merkx
Zinc Red FRET zinc sensors (redCALWY) Robust red FRET sensors using self-associating fluorescent domains. ACS Chem Biol. 2013 Oct 18;8(10):2133-9. Maarten Merkx
Zinc Intracellular Zn2+ imaging (Dual Readout BRET/FRET) Dual Readout BRET/FRET Sensors for Measuring Intracellular Zinc. ACS Chem Biol. 2016 Oct 21;11(10):2854-2864. Maarten Merkx
Zinc eZinCh-2 Zn2+ FRET sensor, cytosolic or ER-targeted eZinCh-2: A Versatile, Genetically Encoded FRET Sensor for Cytosolic and Intraorganelle Zn(2+) Imaging. ACS Chem Biol. 2015 Sep 18;10(9):2126-34. Maarten Merkx
Zinc Cytosolic Cyan-Yellow Zinc FRET sensor Droplet Microfluidic Flow Cytometer For Sorting On Transient Cellular Responses Of Genetically-Encoded Sensors. Anal Chem. 2017 Jan 3;89(1):711-719. Amy Palmer
Zinc Cyan-Yellow Zinc FRET sensor, Golgi or ER targeted Measuring steady-state and dynamic endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi Zn2+ with genetically encoded sensors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 May 3;108(18):7351-6. Amy Palmer
Zinc Cytosolic or Nuclear zinc-binding FRET biosensor (Zap) New alternately colored FRET sensors for simultaneous monitoring of Zn(2)(+) in multiple cellular locations. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e49371.

Direct comparison of a genetically encoded sensor and small molecule indicator: implications for quantification of cytosolic Zn(2+). ACS Chem Biol. 2013 Nov 15;8(11):2366-71.
Amy Palmer
Zinc Cytosolic or Mitochondrial zinc-binding FRET biosensor (ZifCY) Genetically encoded sensors to elucidate spatial distribution of cellular zinc. J Biol Chem. 2009 Jun 12;284(24):16289-97. Amy Palmer
Zinc ZnRed and ZnGreen cytosolic Zinc sensors Single Fluorescent Protein-Based Indicators for Zinc Ion (Zn(2+)). Anal Chem. 2016 Sep 20;88(18):9029-36. Huiwang Ai
Zinc Cell surface localized zinc sensor Genetically Encoded, Photostable Indicators to Image Dynamic Zn(2+) Secretion of Pancreatic Islets. Anal Chem. 2019 Oct 1;91(19):12212-12219. Huiwang Ai
Zinc GZnP2 Cytosolic fluorescent sensor for zinc Optical Recording of Zn(2+) Dynamics in the Mitochondrial Matrix and Intermembrane Space with the GZnP2 Sensor. ACS Chem Biol. 2018 Jul 20;13(7):1897-1905. Yan Qin

Small Molecules

Target Description Article PI
Adenosine Express the adenosine sensor GRAB_Ado1.0 in neurons, astrocytes, or Cre-positive cells (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) Li Lab GRAB_Ado Plasmids Yulong Li
Ammonium Yeast expression of fluorescent sensor reporting the activity of ammonium transceptors (AmTrac) Fluorescent sensors reporting the activity of ammonium transceptors in live cells. Elife. 2013 Jul 2;2:e00800. Wolf Frommer
Ammonium AmTryoshka sensor of ammonium transceptors, with nested reference fluorescent protein Ratiometric Matryoshka biosensors from a nested cassette of green- and orange-emitting fluorescent proteins. Nat Commun. 2017 Sep 5;8(1):431. Wolf Frommer
ADP A fluorescent, reagentless biosensor for ADP based on tetramethylrhodamine-labeled ParM A fluorescent, reagentless biosensor for ADP based on tetramethylrhodamine-labeled ParM. ACS Chem Biol. 2010 Apr 16;5(4):415-25. Martin Webb
ATP Multicolor palette of ATP indicators RGB-color intensiometric indicators visualize spatiotemporal dynamics of ATP in single cells. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2018 Jun 27. Tetsuya Kitaguchi
ATP Variants of ATP sensor iATPSnFR1.0 and iATPSnFR1.1 (cytoplasmic, membrane-displayed, expression in neurons, astrocytes) A genetically encoded single-wavelength sensor for imaging cytosolic and cell surface ATP. Nat Commun. 2019 Feb 12;10(1):711. Baljit Khakh
ATP ATP sensor for Yeast (AT1.03 derived) Dynamic analysis of cytosolic glucose and ATP levels in yeast using optical sensors. Biochem J. 2010 Dec 1. Wolf Frommer
ATP ATP sensor for Yeast (ATeam1.03 derived) Autonomous Metabolic Oscillations Robustly Gate the Early and Late Cell Cycle. Mol Cell. 2017 Jan 19;65(2):285-295. Matthias Heinemann
ATP Improved yAT1.03 FRET-based ATP sensor for yeast An Improved ATP FRET Sensor For Yeast Shows Heterogeneity During Nutrient Transitions. ACS Sens. 2020 Mar 27;5(3):814-822. Bas Teusink
ATP ecAT3.10 extracellular ATP sensor (cell surface targeted) Imaging extracellular ATP with a genetically-encoded, ratiometric fluorescent sensor. PLoS One. 2017 Nov 9;12(11):e0187481. Mathew Tantama
ATP QUEEN ATP sensors Diversity in ATP concentrations in a single bacterial cell population revealed by quantitative single-cell imaging. Sci Rep. 2014 Oct 6;4:6522. Yasushi Okada, Hiroyuki Noji
ATP Fluorescent reagentless biosensors for ATP, based on malonyl-coenzyme A synthetase Webb Lab RpMatB Plasmids Martin Webb
ATP (extracellular) GRAB_ATP1.0/ATP1.0mut biosensor for extracellular ATP (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) A sensitive GRAB sensor for detecting extracellular ATP in vitro and in vivo. Neuron. 2021 Dec 17. pii: S0896-6273(21)00988-0. Yulong Li
ATP/ADP Monitor the ATP:ADP ratio during live-cell imaging (Perceval) A genetically encoded fluorescent reporter of ATP:ADP ratio. Nat Methods. 2009 Feb . 6(2):161-6. Gary Yellen
ATP/ADP Optimized fluorescent sensor of ATP:ADP ratio (PercevalHR) Imaging energy status in live cells with a fluorescent biosensor of the intracellular ATP-to-ADP ratio. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2550. Gary Yellen
Arabinose FRET-based arabinose sensor (FLIPara) Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer sensors for quantitative monitoring of pentose and disaccharide accumulation in bacteria. Biotechnol Biofuels. 2008 Jun 3. 1(1):11. Wolf Frommer
cAMP (cyclic AMP) Improved yellow fluorescent cAMP indicator (Flamindo2) Genetically-encoded yellow fluorescent cAMP indicator with an expanded dynamic range for dual-color imaging. PLoS One. 2014 Jun 24;9(6):e100252. Tetsuya Kitaguchi
cAMP (cyclic AMP) Red fluorescent protein-based cAMP indicator (Pink Flamindo) Red fluorescent protein-based cAMP indicator applicable to optogenetics and in vivo imaging. Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 4;7(1):7351. Tetsuya Kitaguchi
cAMP (cyclic AMP) Fluorescent sensor of cyclic AMP (cAMPr) for mammalian or insect expression (Cre-dependent) cAMPr: A single-wavelength fluorescent sensor for cyclic AMP. Sci Signal. 2018 Mar 6;11(520). pii: 11/520/eaah3738. Justin Blau
cAMP (cyclic AMP) ddRFP-based single-color biosensor for monitoring cAMP dynamics Single-fluorophore biosensors for sensitive and multiplexed detection of signalling activities. Nat Cell Biol. 2018 Sep 24. pii: 10.1038/s41556-018-0200-6. Jin Zhang
cAMP (cyclic AMP) Yellow-emitting homoFRET/anisotropy ICUE cAMP sensor Single-color, ratiometric biosensors for detecting signaling activities in live cells. Elife. 2018 Jul 3;7. pii: 35458 Jin Zhang
cAMP (cyclic AMP) cAMP reporter Flamindo2 A Toolkit for Rapid Modular Construction of Biological Circuits in Mammalian Cells. ACS Synth Biol. 2019 Nov 15;8(11):2593-2606. Hana El-Samad
cAMP (cyclic AMP) Signaling reporter island (SiRI) with GFP-based fluorescent reporter cAMPr Spatial Multiplexing of Fluorescent Reporters for Imaging Signaling Network Dynamics. Cell. 2020 Nov 17. pii: S0092-8674(20)31399-4. Edward Boyden
cAMP (cyclic AMP) FRET sensors of cAMP levels for imaging in live cells Jalink Lab Biosensor Plasmids Kees Jalink
cAMP (cyclic AMP) Fluorescent protein exchange sensor for cAMP Ratiometric biosensors based on dimerization-dependent fluorescent protein exchange. Nat Methods. 2015 Jan 26. Anne Marie Quinn
cGMP (cyclic GMP) FlincG GFP-based cGMP sensor Differential patterning of cGMP in vascular smooth muscle cells revealed by single GFP-linked biosensors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jan 8. Wolfgang Dostmann
cGMP (cyclic GMP) Green fluorescent probe for cGMP (cGull) Generation of a cGMP Indicator with an Expanded Dynamic Range by Optimization of Amino Acid Linkers between a Fluorescent Protein and PDE5alpha. ACS Sens. 2017 Jan 27;2(1):46-51. Tetsuya Kitaguchi
cGMP (cyclic GMP) FlincG3 (GFP-based cGMP sensor) for imaging in C. elegans neurons Using a Robust and Sensitive GFP-Based cGMP Sensor for Real Time Imaging in Intact Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics. 2019 Jul 22. pii: genetics.119.302392. Noelle L'Etoile, Miri VanHoven
cGMP (cyclic GMP) FlincG-type fluorescent biosensors for neural cGMP imaging Improved genetically-encoded, FlincG-type fluorescent biosensors for neural cGMP imaging. Front Mol Neurosci. 2013 Sep 24;6:26. John Garthwaite
cGMP (cyclic GMP) FRET-based cGMP biosensor SponGee: A Genetic Tool for Subcellular and Cell-Specific cGMP Manipulation. Cell Rep. 2019 Jun 25;27(13):4003-4012.e6. Xavier Nicol
Chloride (Cl-) ClopHensor biosensor for intracellular chloride and pH Arosio Lab ClopHensor Plasmids Daniele Arosio
Chloride (Cl-) Dual ClopHensorN chloride and proton sensor A genetically-encoded chloride and pH sensor for dissociating ion dynamics in the nervous system. Front Cell Neurosci. 2013 Nov 13;7:202. Colin Akerman
Chloride (Cl-) YFP derived for measuring Cl- concentration in physiological range A genetically-encoded YFP sensor with enhanced chloride sensitivity, photostability and reduced ph interference demonstrates augmented transmembrane chloride movement by gerbil prestin (SLC26a5). PLoS One. 2014 Jun 5;9(6):e99095. Joseph Santos-Sacchi
Chloride (Cl-) ClopHensorN chloride sensor (cytosolic) Multiplexed Optical Sensors in Arrayed Islands of Cells for multimodal recordings of cellular physiology. Nat Commun. 2020 Aug 4;11(1):3881. Adam Cohen
Chloride (Cl-) Membrane-targeted biosensor for monitoring changes in intracellular chloride A sensitive membrane-targeted biosensor for monitoring changes in intracellular chloride in neuronal processes. PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e35373. Susan Amara, Susan Ingram
Citrate Nanosensors for in vivo measurements of citrate (CitA) Engineering genetically encoded nanosensors for real-time in vivo measurements of citrate concentrations. PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e28245. Uwe Sauer
Citrate Direct or inverse fluorescent biosensor for citrate (Citron/Citroff), mitochondrial or cytosolic High-Performance Intensiometric Direct- and Inverse-Response Genetically Encoded Biosensors for Citrate. ACS Cent Sci. 2020 Aug 26;6(8):1441-1450. Robert Campbell
cyclic di-GMP FRET-based biosensor for cyclic-di-GMP measurement Asymmetrical distribution of the second messenger c-di-GMP upon bacterial cell division. Science. 2010 Jun 4;328(5983):1295-7. Samuel Miller
Glucose FRET sensor to monitor glucose levels and transport (FLIPglu) Frommer Lab FLIPglu Plasmids Wolf Frommer
Glucose FRET sensor to monitor glucose levels and transport (FLIIglu) Frommer Lab FLIIglu Plasmids Wolf Frommer
Glucose Green fluorescent glucose indicators for living cells (Glifons) Green Fluorescent Protein-Based Glucose Indicators Report Glucose Dynamics in Living Cells. Anal Chem. 2019 Apr 2;91(7):4821-4830. Tetsuya Kitaguchi
Glucose Red fluorescent glucose indicators for living cells (Glifons) Development of red genetically encoded biosensor for visualization of intracellular glucose dynamics. Cell Chem Biol. 2021 Jun 29. pii: S2451-9456(21)00301-9. Takashi Tsuboi
Glucose iGlucoSnFR-TS biosensor for intracellular glucose Quantitative in vivo imaging of neuronal glucose concentrations with a genetically encoded fluorescence lifetime sensor. J Neurosci Res. 2019 May 20. Gary Yellen
Glucose iGlucoSnFR biosensors for cytosolic glucose Looger Lab Glucose Sensor Plasmids Loren Looger
Glutamine FLIPQTV3.0 glutamine sensor variants Visualization of glutamine transporter activities in living cells using genetically encoded glutamine sensors. PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e38591. Sakiko Okumoto
Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) Fluorescent reporter of cytosolic hydrogen peroxide Monitoring the action of redox-directed cancer therapeutics using a human peroxiredoxin-2-based probe. Nat Commun. 2018 Aug 7;9(1):3145. Hadley Sikes
Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) Monitoring of basal H2O2 levels with peroxiredoxin-based probes Real-time monitoring of basal H2O2 levels with peroxiredoxin-based probes. Nat Chem Biol. 2016 Jun;12(6):437-43. Tobias Dick
Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) Measure changes in intracellular hydrogen peroxide concentration Belousov Lab HyPer Plasmids Vsevolod Belousov
Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) Cytosolic or mitochondrial sensor for H2O2 oxidation (roGFP2-Orp1) Multiplexed Optical Sensors in Arrayed Islands of Cells for multimodal recordings of cellular physiology. Nat Commun. 2020 Aug 4;11(1):3881 Adam Cohen
Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) Hydrogen peroxide-sensitive fluorescent biosensor HyPer3 Chemogenetic generation of hydrogen peroxide in the heart induces severe cardiac dysfunction. Nat Commun. 2018 Oct 2;9(1):4044. Thomas Michel
Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) Expresses hydrogen peroxide biosensor HyPer2 in plant cells Photosynthesis-dependent H2O2 transfer from chloroplasts to nuclei provides a high-light signalling mechanism. Nat Commun. 2017 Jun 29;8(1):49. Philip Mullineaux
Insulin Sensor for Imaging Insulin Secretion A Ratiometric Sensor for Imaging Insulin Secretion in Single beta Cells. Cell Chem Biol. 2017 Apr 20;24(4):525-531.e4. Dmytro Yushchenko
Lactate Laconic FRET-based lactate sensor Barros Lab Laconic Plasmids Luis Felipe Barros
Lactate/Pyruvate Lapronic FRET-based sensor for Lactate/Pyruvate Ratio Imaging of the Lactate/Pyruvate Ratio Using a Genetically Encoded FRET Indicator. Anal Chem. 2020 Jun 29. Luis Felipe Barros
Lactate Expresses eLACCO1.1 fluorescent biosensor for extracellular L-lactate, in neurons, astrocytes or mammalian cells A genetically encoded fluorescent biosensor for extracellular L-lactate. Nat Commun. 2021 Dec 6;12(1):7058. Marie-Eve Paquet, Robert Campbell
Lactate Lindoblum green fluorescent biosensor for lactate Green fluorescent protein-based lactate and pyruvate indicators suitable for biochemical assays and live cell imaging. Sci Rep. 2020 Nov 11;10(1):19562. Takashi Tsuboi
Maltose Single fluorescent protein biosensor for maltose Rapid construction of metabolite biosensors using domain-insertion profiling. Nat Commun. 2016 Jul 29;7:12266. David Savage
Maltose Monitor maltose levels and metabolism (FLIPmal) Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer sensors for quantitative monitoring of pentose and disaccharide accumulation in bacteria. Biotechnol Biofuels. 2008 Jun 3. 1(1):11. Wolf Frommer
Maltose Green fluorescent MBP-based maltose biosensor A genetically encoded, high-signal-to-noise maltose sensor. Proteins. 2011 Nov;79(11):3025-36. Loren Looger
NADH/NAD+ Peredox NADH/NAD+ sensor (cytosolic) Multiplexed Optical Sensors in Arrayed Islands of Cells for multimodal recordings of cellular physiology. Nat Commun. 2020 Aug 4;11(1):3881 Adam Cohen
NADH/NAD+ Fluorescent biosensor of NAD/NADH (RexYFP) Genetically encoded fluorescent indicator for imaging NAD/NADH ratio changes in different cellular compartments. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013 Nov 25. pii: S0304-4165(13)00519-9. Vsevolod Belousov
NADH/NAD+ Peredox Fluorescent biosensor of the cytosolic NADH/NAD+ redox state Imaging Cytosolic NADH-NAD(+) Redox State with a Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Biosensor. Cell Metab. 2011 Oct 5;14(4):545-54. Gary Yellen
NADH/NAD+ Peredox fluorescent sensor protein for NADH/NAD+ ratio Cytosolic NADH-NAD Redox Visualized in Brain Slices by Two-Photon Fluorescence Lifetime Biosensor Imaging. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2016 Mar 18. Gary Yellen
NADH/NAD+ Cytosolic expression of fluorescent NADH/NAD+ biosensor Peredox-mCherry in plants In Vivo NADH/NAD+ Biosensing Reveals the Dynamics of Cytosolic Redox Metabolism in Plants. Plant Cell. 2020 Aug 13. pii: tpc.20.00241. Markus Schwarzländer
NADPH BRET semi-synthetic biosensor measuring the NADPH concentration Semisynthetic sensor proteins enable metabolic assays at the point of care. Science. 2018 Sep 14;361(6407):1122-1126. Kai Johnsson
NADPH/NADP+ or NAD+ Snifit FRET-based sensors of NADPH/NADP+ ratio or NAD+ Semisynthetic biosensors for mapping cellular concentrations of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides. Elife. 2018 May 29;7. pii: 32638. Kai Johnsson
Phosphate Scaffold for inorganic phosphate biosensor Development of a Reagentless Biosensor for Inorganic Phosphate, Applicable over a Wide Concentration Range. Biochemistry. 2015 Aug 18;54(32):5054-62. Martin Webb
Phosphate FRET-based phosphate sensor (FLIPPi) A novel analytical method for in vivo phosphate tracking. FEBS Lett. 2006 Oct 30. 580(25):5885-93. Wolf Frommer
Pyruvate Quantitative measurement of pyruvate transport, production and consumption Barros Lab Pyronic Plasmids Luis Felipe Barros
Pyruvate Pegassos green fluorescent biosensor for pyruvate Green fluorescent protein-based lactate and pyruvate indicators suitable for biochemical assays and live cell imaging. Sci Rep. 2020 Nov 11;10(1):19562. Takashi Tsuboi
Ribose FRET-based sensor to monitor ribose uptake and metabolism, FLIPrbs Development of a fluorescent nanosensor for ribose. FEBS Lett. 2003 Oct 9. 553(1-2):85-9. Wolf Frommer
Sucrose FRET-based sensor to monitor sucrose levels, FLIPsuc Conversion of a putative Agrobacterium sugar-binding protein into a FRET sensor with high selectivity for sucrose. J Biol Chem. 2006 Oct 13. 281(41):30875-83. Wolf Frommer
Trehalose Single fluorescent protein biosensor for trehalose Rapid construction of metabolite biosensors using domain-insertion profiling. Nat Commun. 2016 Jul 29;7:12266. David Savage
Tryptophan Visualize intracellular tryptophan levels and flux Nanosensor detection of an immunoregulatory tryptophan influx/kynurenine efflux cycle. PLoS Biol. 2007 Oct;5(10):e257. Wolf Frommer

Neurotransmitters

Target Description Article PI
Acetylcholine Family of ACh sensors (GACh) based on G-protein-coupled receptors A genetically encoded fluorescent acetylcholine indicator for in vitro and in vivo studies. Nat Biotechnol. 2018 Sep;36(8):726-737. Yulong Li
Acetylcholine Optimized acetylcholine sensor for monitoring in vivo cholinergic activity (GACh3.0) (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) An optimized acetylcholine sensor for monitoring in vivo cholinergic activity. Nat Methods. 2020 Sep 28. pii: 10.1038/s41592-020-0953-2. Yulong Li
Acetylcholine Fluorescent sensor for in vivo acetylcholine detection (iAchSnFR) (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) A fast genetically encoded fluorescent sensor for faithful in vivo acetylcholine detection in mice, fish, worms and flies. bioRxiv 2020 Loren Looger, J. Julius Zhu
Dopamine Improved Dopamine sensors GRAB_DA2 Next-generation GRAB sensors for monitoring dopaminergic activity in vivo. Nat Methods. 2020 Nov;17(11):1156-1166. Yulong Li
Dopamine Genetically encoded GPCR-activation-based-DA (GRAB_DA) sensors A Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Sensor Enables Rapid and Specific Detection of Dopamine in Flies, Fish, and Mice. Cell. 2018 Jul 12;174(2):481-496.e19. Yulong Li
Dopamine Ultrafast neuronal imaging of dopamine dynamics (dLight1.1-1.5) Ultrafast neuronal imaging of dopamine dynamics with designed genetically encoded sensors. Science. 2018 Jun 29;360(6396). pii: science.aat4422. Lin Tian
Dopamine Yellow or Red genetically encoded dopamine sensor YdLight1 and RdLight1 An expanded palette of dopamine sensors for multiplex imaging in vivo. Nat Methods. 2020 Nov;17(11):1147-1155. Lin Tian
Endocannabinoid GRAB_eCB2.0/eCBmut biosensor for endocannabinoids in vivo (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) A fluorescent sensor for spatiotemporally resolved imaging of endocannabinoid dynamics in vivo. Nat Biotechnol. 2021 Nov 11. pii: 10.1038/s41587-021-01074-4. Yulong Li
GABA GABA Sensor (iGABASnFR) (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) A genetically encoded fluorescent sensor for in vivo imaging of GABA. Nat Methods. 2019 Aug;16(8):763-770. Loren Looger
GABA A fluorescent sensor for GABA and synthetic GABA(B) receptor ligands (GABA-Snifit) A fluorescent sensor for GABA and synthetic GABA(B) receptor ligands. J Am Chem Soc. 2012 Nov 21;134(46):19026-34. Kai Johnsson
Glutamate Third generation glutamate sensors (iGluSnFR3) for improved imaging of synaptic transmission Glutamate indicators with improved activation kinetics and localization for imaging synaptic transmission. bioRxiv 2022 Kaspar Podgorski
Glutamate FRET sensor to monitor glutamate transport and metabolism (FLIPE) Frommer Lab FLIPE Plasmids Wolf Frommer
Glutamate Ultrafast glutamate sensors (iGluSnFR variants) Ultrafast glutamate sensors resolve high-frequency release at Schaffer collateral synapses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 May 7. pii: 1720648115. Katalin Torok
Glutamate GfaABC1D-driven glutamate sensor (GluSnFr) Khakh Lab GluSnFr Plasmid (2017) Baljit Khakh
Glutamate Membrane displayed variants of fluorescent glutatmate sensors (iGluSnFR1) Genetically Encoded Glutamate Indicators with Altered Color and Topology. ACS Chem Biol. 2018 Jan 22. Robert Campbell
Glutamate Targeted sensors for glutamatergic neurotransmission Targeted Sensors for Glutamatergic Neurotransmission. bioRxiv 2021 Andrew Plested
Glutamate iGluSnFR glutamate sensor with improved trafficking to the plasma membrane Acute disruption of the synaptic vesicle membrane protein synaptotagmin 1 using knockoff in mouse hippocampal neurons. Elife. 2020 Jun 9;9. pii: 56469. Edwin Chapman
Nicotine fluorescent biosensors for nicotine (iNicSnFRs) Determining the pharmacokinetics of nicotinic drugs in the endoplasmic reticulum using biosensors. J Gen Physiol. 2019 Feb 4. pii: jgp.201812201. Henry Lester
Norepinephrine Family of GPCR activation-based NE (GRABNE) sensors A Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Sensor for Rapid and Specific In Vivo Detection of Norepinephrine. Neuron. 2019 May 22;102(4):745-761.e8. Yulong Li, , J. Julius Zhu
Serotonin Serotonin (5-HT) sensor GRAB_5-HT1.0 for viral expression in neurons A genetically encoded sensor for measuring serotonin dynamics. Nat Neurosci. 2021 Apr 5. pii: 10.1038/s41593-021-00823-7. Yulong Li, , J. Julius Zhu
Serotonin Serotonin sensor iSeroSnFR for bacterial or mammalian expression (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) Directed Evolution of a Selective and Sensitive Serotonin Sensor via Machine Learning. Cell. 2020 Dec 12. pii: S0092-8674(20)31612-3. Lin Tian

Cell Physiology

Target Description Article PI
Autophagy Measure autophagic flux by pH-sensitive fluorescence (pMRX-IP-GFP-LC3-RFP) An Autophagic Flux Probe that Releases an Internal Control. Mol Cell. 2016 Nov 17;64(4):835-849. Noboru Mizushima
Autophagy Autophagosome maturation reporter (pmRFP-LC3) Dissection of the autophagosome maturation process by a novel reporter protein, tandem fluorescent-tagged LC3. Autophagy. 2007;3(5):452-60. Tamotsu Yoshimori
Autophagy Expresses pHluorin-mKate2-hLC3 (PK-hLC3) for monitoring autophagy A Super-Ecliptic, pHluorin-mKate2, Tandem Fluorescent Protein-Tagged Human LC3 for the Monitoring of Mammalian Autophagy. PLoS One. 2014 Oct 23;9(10):e110600. Isei Tanida
Cellular drug uptake Biosensors for screening Carboanhydrase II and p53-HDM2 interacting drugs Evaluating Cellular Drug Uptake with Fluorescent Sensor Proteins. ACS Sens. 2017 Aug 25;2(8):1191-1197. Kai Johnsson
Electrostatic potential Quantitative measurements of membrane charges A FRET sensor enables quantitative measurements of membrane charges in live cells. Nat Biotechnol. 2017 Mar 13. Katharina Gaus
Endo/Exocytosis Superecliptic pHluorin fused to glutamate receptor Glutamate receptor exocytosis and spine enlargement during chemically induced long-term potentiation. J Neurosci. 2006 Feb 15. 26(7):2000-9. Robert Malinow
Endo/Exocytosis Synaptophysin-pHluorin Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is the dominant mechanism of vesicle retrieval at hippocampal synapses. Neuron. 2006 Sep 21. 51(6):773-86. Leon Lagnado
Endo/Exocytosis Synaptophysin with tandem repeats of pHluorin Two pathways of synaptic vesicle retrieval revealed by single-vesicle imaging. Neuron. 2009 Feb 12;61(3):397-411. Stephen Heinemann, Yongling Zhu
Mitophagy Dual-emission mitophagy biosensor (pH sensitive mt-mKeima) The ubiquitin kinase PINK1 recruits autophagy receptors to induce mitophagy. Nature. 2015 Aug 20;524(7565):309-14. Richard Youle
Osmolarity SED1 osmolarity biosensor, for expression in E. coli, yeast or plants Intrinsically disordered protein biosensor tracks the physical-chemical effects of osmotic stress on cells. Nat Commun. 2021 Sep 14;12(1):5438. Cesar Cuevas-Velazquez, Jose Dinneny
Lysosomal pH Lyso-pHluorin for fluorescent readout of lysosome acidification Optogenetic acidification of synaptic vesicles and lysosomes. Nat Neurosci. 2015 Nov 9. Christian Rosenmund
pH Superecliptic pHluorin pH sensor Amiloride inhibits macropinocytosis by lowering submembranous pH and preventing Rac1 and Cdc42 signaling. J Cell Biol. 2010 Feb 22;188(4):547-63. Sergio Grinstein
pH Superfolder pHluorin pH sensor A superfolder variant of pH-sensitive pHluorin for in vivo pH measurements in the endoplasmic reticulum. Sci Rep. 2018 Aug 10;8(1):11985. Eckhard Boles
pH Imaging intracellular pH in live cells (pHRed) Imaging Intracellular pH in Live Cells with a Genetically Encoded Red Fluorescent Protein Sensor. J Am Chem Soc. 2011 Jul 6. 133(26):10034-7. Gary Yellen
pH Ratiometric pHluorin2 for pH sensing The zebrafish merovingian mutant reveals a role for pH regulation in hair cell toxicity and function. Dis Model Mech. 2014 Jul;7(7):847-56. David Raible
pH Red or Orange pH biosensors (pHuji and pHoran4) pHuji, a pH-sensitive red fluorescent protein for imaging of exo- and endocytosis. J Cell Biol. 2014 Nov 10;207(3):419-32. Robert Campbell
pH Red fluorescent pH biosensor mNectarine Red fluorescent protein pH biosensor to detect concentrative nucleoside transport. J Biol Chem. 2009 Jul 31;284(31):20499-511. Robert Campbell
pH Fluorescent pH biosensor (cytosolic and mitochondrial; SypHer3s) SypHer3s: a genetically encoded fluorescent ratiometric probe with enhanced brightness and an improved dynamic range. Chem Commun (Camb). 2018 Mar 2. Vsevolod Belousov
pH Fluorescent pH biosensor (cytosolic and mitochondrial; SypHer) Dynamic regulation of the mitochondrial proton gradient during cytosolic calcium elevations. J Biol Chem. 2011 Apr 1;286(13):11672-84. Nicolas Demaurex
pH Rosella Fluorescent pH-biosensor for reporting vacuolar turnover in yeast (cytosolic and mitochondrial) Rosella: a fluorescent pH-biosensor for reporting vacuolar turnover of cytosol and organelles in yeast. Autophagy. 2008 Feb;4(2):205-13. Mark Prescott
pH SRpHi ratiometric pH biosensors for super-resolution microscopy SRpHi ratiometric pH biosensors for super-resolution microscopy. Nat Commun. 2017 Sep 18;8(1):577. Stefan Hell
pH Luciferase-fluorophore pH fusion reporters (pHlash) using BRET pHlash: a new genetically encoded and ratiometric luminescence sensor of intracellular pH. PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e43072. Carl Johnson
pH Synaptic vesicle pH sensors for imaging exocytosis and endocytosis (pHuji). Semisynthetic fluorescent pH sensors for imaging exocytosis and endocytosis. Nat Commun. 2017 Nov 10;8(1):1412. Justin Taraska, David Perrais
pH Sensor for intracellular chloride and pH (ClopHensor) Arosio Lab ClopHensor Plasmids Daniele Arosio
pH Cytosolic, mitochondrial or ER-targeted pHluorin (ratiometric or superecliptic) Cohen Lab pHluorin Plasmids Adam Cohen
Proteome stress GFP-luciferase mutants to monitor protein aggregation state Firefly luciferase mutants as sensors of proteome stress. Nat Methods. 2011 Sep 4;8(10):879-84. Franz-Ulrich Hartl
Redox/ROS Redox-sensitive cytosolic protein sensor Mitochondrial complex III is required for hypoxia-induced ROS production and cellular oxygen sensing. Cell Metab. 2005 Jun;1(6):401-8. Ulrich Hammerling
Redox/ROS Variants of Redox-sensitive protein sensors (roGFP) Lifetime imaging of a fluorescent protein sensor reveals surprising stability of ER thiol redox. J Cell Biol. 2013 Apr 15;201(2):337-49. David Ron
Redox/ROS Thiol redox-sensitive ratiometric sensor roGFP for mitochondria or cytosol Hypoxia triggers subcellular compartmental redox signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells. Circ Res. 2010 Feb 19;106(3):526-35. Paul Schumacker
Redox/ROS Glutathione redox sensors for cytosol, ER or mitochondria Multiplexed Optical Sensors in Arrayed Islands of Cells for multimodal recordings of cellular physiology. Nat Commun. 2020 Aug 4;11(1):3881. Adam Cohen
Redox/ROS Red fluorescent biosensor for glutathione redox changes Red fluorescent redox-sensitive biosensor Grx1-roCherry. Redox Biol. 2019 Feb;21:101071. Dmitry Bilan
Temperature Genetically encoded ratiometric fluorescent thermometer A highly-sensitive genetically encoded temperature indicator exploiting a temperature-responsive elastin-like polypeptide. Sci Rep. 2021 Aug 13;11(1):16519. Takeharu Nagai
Tension Vinculin tension sensors Measuring mechanical tension across vinculin reveals regulation of focal adhesion dynamics. Nature. 2010 Jul 8. 466(7303):263-6. Martin Schwartz
Tension Fluorescence-based tension sensor module (talin based) Grashoff Lab Tension Sensor Plasmids Carsten Grashoff
Tension Fluorescence-based tension sensor module (desmoplakin based) Mechanical loading of desmosomes depends on the magnitude and orientation of external stress. Nat Commun. 2018 Dec 11;9(1):5284. Carsten Grashoff, Alex Dunn
Tension Vinculin tension sensor Tunable molecular tension sensors reveal extension-based control of vinculin loading. Elife. 2018 Jul 19;7. pii: 33927. Brenton Hoffman
Tension FRET-based actinin tension sensor Observations of intracellular tension dynamics of MC3T3-E1 cells during substrate adhesion using a FRET-based actinin tension sensor. J Biomech Sci Eng. 2016 11,4 Tetsuya Kitaguchi
Tension Measuring tension on Talin molecule Talin tension sensor reveals novel features of focal adhesion force transmission and mechanosensitivity. J Cell Biol. 2016 May 9;213(3):371-83. Martin Schwartz
Voltage Voltage Sensitive Fluorescent Protein (VSFP/Butterfly) Knopfel Lab VSFP Plasmids Thomas Knopfel
Voltage Detection of single action / excitatory potentials in individual neurons and dendrites (ArcLight) Single action potentials and subthreshold electrical events imaged in neurons with a fluorescent protein voltage probe. Neuron. 2012 Sep 6;75(5):779-85. Vincent Pieribone
Voltage Ultrafast fluorescent voltage sensor (ASAP2f) Subcellular Imaging of Voltage and Calcium Signals Reveals Neural Processing In Vivo. Cell. 2016 Jun 30;166(1):245-57. Michael Lin
Voltage Ultrafast fluorescent voltage sensor for detection of single action potentials (ASAP1) High-fidelity optical reporting of neuronal electrical activity with an ultrafast fluorescent voltage sensor. Nat Neurosci. 2014 Apr 22. Michael Lin
Voltage Optimised fluorescent voltage reporters Archon 1 and Archon 2 (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) A robotic multidimensional directed evolution approach applied to fluorescent voltage reporters. Nat Chem Biol. 2018 Feb 26. pii: 10.1038/s41589-018-0004-9. Edward Boyden
Voltage Optimised fluorescent voltage reporter Voltron (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) Bright and photostable chemigenetic indicators for extended in vivo voltage imaging. Science. 2019 Aug 1. pii: science.aav6416. Eric Schreiter
Voltage Positive-going FRET voltage reporter Positron (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) A general approach to engineer positive-going eFRET voltage indicators. Nat Commun. 2020 Jul 10;11(1):3444. Eric Schreiter
Voltage Red fluorescent voltage sensor to detect neural activity (Ace-mScarlet) A high-speed, bright, red fluorescent voltage sensor to detect neural activity. Sci Rep. 2019 Nov 4;9(1):15878. Yiyang Gong
Voltage Red fluorescent voltage sensor to detect neural activity (FlicR1) A Bright and Fast Red Fluorescent Protein Voltage Indicator That Reports Neuronal Activity in Organotypic Brain Slices. J Neurosci. 2016 Feb 24;36(8):2458-72. Robert Campbell
Voltage Multicoloured voltage reporters (FCK-QuasAr2) Bright and fast multicoloured voltage reporters via electrochromic FRET. Nat Commun. 2014 Aug 13;5:4625. Adam Cohen
Voltage Fluorescent reporter of membrane voltage (Arch(D95H)-eGFP) Screening fluorescent voltage indicators with spontaneously spiking HEK cells. PLoS One. 2013 Dec 31;8(12):e85221. Adam Cohen
Voltage Fluorescent reporter for membrane voltage with improved brightness (QuasAr1 and QuasAr2) All-optical electrophysiology in mammalian neurons using engineered microbial rhodopsins. Nat Methods. 2014 Aug;11(8):825-33. Adam Cohen
Voltage Target a voltage sensor ASAP2s cassette into the mouse TIGRE locus (Cre-dependent) A Suite of Transgenic Driver and Reporter Mouse Lines with Enhanced Brain-Cell-Type Targeting and Functionality. Cell. 2018 Jul 12;174(2):465-480.e22. Michael Lin, Hongkui Zeng
Voltage Expression of both PROPS voltage indicator and GCaMP6f calcium sensor for bacteria Kralj lab Constitutive Bacterial Electrophysiology Plasmids Joel Kralj
Voltage Voltage imaging tools for use in muscles and neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans Rhodopsin-based voltage imaging tools for use in muscles and neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Aug 1. Alexander Gottschalk
Voltage Voltage sensor targeted to dendrites and spines Voltage compartmentalization in dendritic spines in vivo. Science. 2022 Jan 7;375(6576):82-86. Rafael Yuste
Voltage Near-infrared fluorescent voltage indicator nirButterfly Screening and Cellular Characterization of Genetically Encoded Voltage Indicators Based on Near-Infrared Fluorescent Proteins. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2020 Nov 4;11(21):3523-3531. Vladislav Verkhusha

Gene-specific Activity

Target Description Article PI
Actin Quantify actin polymerization with mEGFP-actin and sREACh-actin monomers Highly sensitive and quantitative FRET-FLIM imaging in single dendritic spines using improved non-radiative YFP. Brain Cell Biol. 2008 Aug. 36(1-4):31-42. Ryohei Yasuda
Akt AktAR Fluorescent biosensors for imaging of Akt activity (Protein Kinase B) Zhang Lab AktAR Plasmids Jin Zhang
Alpha Catenin Alpha Catenin conformation sensor Dynamic visualization of alpha-catenin reveals rapid, reversible conformation switching between tension states. Curr Biol. 2015 Jan 19;25(2):218-24. Deborah Leckband
AMPK AMP-activated protein kinase biosensor (ABKAR), targeted to various organelles Compartmentalized AMPK signaling illuminated by genetically encoded molecular sensors and actuators. Cell Rep. 2015 Apr 28;11(4):657-70. Jin Zhang, Takanari Inoue
AMPK FRET Biosensor for AMPK A Highly Sensitive FRET Biosensor for AMPK Exhibits Heterogeneous AMPK Responses among Cells and Organs. Cell Rep. 2017 Nov 28;21(9):2628-2638. Michiyuki Matsuda
Arf6 Visualize Arf6 activation in live cells A fluorescence resonance energy transfer activation sensor for Arf6. Anal Biochem. 2008 Mar 15. 374(2):243-9. Martin Schwartz
Aurora B Sensor for Aurora B substrate phosphorylation Sds22 and Repo-Man stabilize chromosome segregation by counteracting Aurora B on anaphase kinetochores. J Cell Biol. 2012 Jul 23;198(2):173-83. Daniel Gerlich
Aurora B Aurora B substrate phosphorylation sensor with mTurquoise2 and YPet FRET pair Measuring NDC80 binding reveals the molecular basis of tension-dependent kinetochore-microtubule attachments. Elife. 2018 Jul 25;7. pii: 36392. Daniel Needleman
Calcineurin FRET biosensor for monitoring calcineurin (CaN) activation Calmodulin-controlled spatial decoding of oscillatory Ca2+ signals by calcineurin. Elife. 2014 Jul 23;3:e03765. Jin Zhang
Calpain Detection of activity of ubiquitous calpains Imaging calpain protease activity by multiphoton FRET in living mice. J Mol Biol. 2005 Feb 11;346(1):215-22. Isabelle Richard
CamKII FRET-based sensor for CaMKII activity (FRESCA) FRET-based sensor for CaMKII activity (FRESCA): A useful tool for assessing CaMKII activity in response to Ca(2+) oscillations in live cells. J Biol Chem. 2019 Jun 14. pii: RA119.009235. Margaret Stratton
CaMKIIa Measure CaMKII activation in dendritic spines Activation of CaMKII in single dendritic spines during long-term potentiation. Nature. 2009 Mar 19. 458(7236):299-304. Ryohei Yasuda
Caspases Fluorescent biosensor for super-resolution imaging of caspase activity Genetically encoded biosensors for visualizing live-cell biochemical activity at super-resolution. Nat Methods. 2017 Apr;14(4):427-434. Jin Zhang
Caspases Fluorescent protein exchange sensor for caspase 1, 3, 8, or 9 activity Ratiometric biosensors based on dimerization-dependent fluorescent protein exchange. Nat Methods. 2015 Jan 26. Anne Marie Quinn, Robert Campbell
Caspases BRET Sensors for Caspase 3, 8 or 9 Bright Bioluminescent BRET Sensor Proteins for Measuring Intracellular Caspase Activity. ACS Sens. 2017 Jun 23;2(6):729-734. Maarten Merkx
Caspases Reporter proteins for caspase 3, 8, or 10 activity Modeling a snap-action, variable-delay switch controlling extrinsic cell death. PLoS Biol. 2008 Dec 2. 6(12):2831-52. Peter Sorger
Caspase 3 ZipGFP-based Caspase-3 protease reporter T2A mCherry Rational Design of a GFP-Based Fluorogenic Caspase Reporter for Imaging Apoptosis In Vivo. Cell Chem Biol. 2016 Jul 21;23(7):875-82. Xiaokun Shu
Caspase 3 FlipGFP caspase-3 protease reporter Designing a green fluorogenic protease reporter by flipping a beta strand of GFP for imaging apoptosis in animals. J Am Chem Soc. 2019 Mar 1. Xiaokun Shu
Caspase 3 Caspase-3 activity FRET biosensor Fluorescent protein FRET pairs for ratiometric imaging of dual biosensors. Nat Methods. 2008. 5(5):401-3. Robert Campbell
Caspase 3 Indicator of caspase-3-like protease activity Visualization of caspase-3-like activity in cells using a genetically encoded fluorescent biosensor activated by protein cleavage. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2157. Binghui Li
Caspase 3 Reporter protein for caspase 3 activity An Orange Fluorescent Protein with a Large Stokes Shift for Single-Excitation Multicolor FCCS and FRET Imaging. J Am Chem Soc. 2012 Apr 24. Vladislav Verkhusha
Caspase 3 Split fluorescent reporter for Caspase-3 activity A split fluorescent reporter with rapid and reversible complementation. Nat Commun. 2019 Jun 27;10(1):2822. Arnaud Gautier
Cdc42 Cdc42 visualization in living cells Activation of endogenous Cdc42 visualized in living cells. Science. 2004 Sep 10. 305(5690):1615-9. Klaus Hahn
Cdc42 FRET-based biosensor reporting on endogenous Cdc42 activation (bacterial, mammalian, viral expression) Spatio-temporal co-ordination of RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42 activation during prototypical edge protrusion and retraction dynamics. Sci Rep. 2016 Feb 25;6:21901. Olivier Pertz
CyclinB-Cdk1 CyclinB1-Cdk1 kinase activity Progressive activation of CyclinB1-Cdk1 coordinates entry to mitosis. Dev Cell. 2010 Apr 20. 18(4):533-43. Jonathon Pines
Erk Imaging of ERK kinase activity Ratiometric biosensors based on dimerization-dependent fluorescent protein exchange. Nat Methods. 2015 Jan 26. Robert Campbell
Erk Biosensors for imaging of ERK activity Zhang Lab EKAR Plasmids Jin Zhang
Erk FRET biosensor for Erk activity (EKAR) A Versatile Toolkit to Produce Sensitive FRET Biosensors to Visualize Signaling in Time and Space. Sci Signal. 2013 Jul 23;6(285):rs12. Olivier Pertz
Erk Sensor for ERK activation in cytosol, nucleus and PSD Imaging ERK and PKA Activation in Single Dendritic Spines during Structural Plasticity. Neuron. 2017 Mar 22;93(6):1315-1324.e3. Ryohei Yasuda
Erk FRET-based sensor of ERK activity, cytosolic or nuclear A genetically encoded fluorescent sensor of ERK activity. PNAS 2008 Dec 9;105(49):19264-9 Karel Svoboda
FAK Detection of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation Wang Lab FAK Biosensor Plasmids Yingxiao Wang
Galpha 1, 2, 3 Measuring Galphai1, Galphai2 and Galphai3 Activation A New Generation of FRET Sensors for Robust Measurement of Galphai1, Galphai2 and Galphai3 Activation Kinetics in Single Cells. PLoS One. 2016 Jan 22;11(1):e0146789. Dorus Gadella
Galpha 13 Measuring GPCR (Galpha13) activation in single cells A FRET-based biosensor for measuring Galpha13 activation in single cells. PLoS One. 2018 Mar 5;13(3):e0193705. Dorus Gadella
Gq Sensor for Gq activation Characterization of a spectrally diverse set of fluorescent proteins as FRET acceptors for mTurquoise2. Sci Rep. 2017 Sep 20;7(1):11999. Dorus Gadella
Histone modifications Fluorescent reporters of histone H3 methylation in living cells (K9 and K27) Genetically encoded fluorescent reporters of histone methylation in living cells. J Am Chem Soc. 2004 May 19. Alice Ting
Histone modifications Fluorescent reporters of histone H3 S28 phosphorylation in living cells A genetically encoded fluorescent reporter of histone phosphorylation in living cells. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2004 May 24;43(22):2940-3. Alice Ting
Histone modifications Fluorescent reporters of histone H3 modifications (H3K9me3, H3S10ph) Coordinated histone modifications and chromatin reorganization in a single cell revealed by FRET biosensors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Nov 26. Yingxiao Wang
IκBα NIR reporter for canonical activation of NF-κB pathway Bright monomeric near-infrared fluorescent proteins as tags and biosensors for multiscale imaging. Nat Commun. 2016 Aug 19;7:12405. Vladislav Verkhusha
JNK NIR biosensors for detection of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity Smallest near-infrared fluorescent protein evolved from cyanobacteriochrome as versatile tag for spectral multiplexing. Nat Commun. 2019 Jan 17;10(1):279. Vladislav Verkhusha
JNK FRET-based biosensor for monitoring JNK activity Visualization of JNK activity dynamics with a genetically encoded fluorescent biosensor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Mar 23;107(12):5459-64. Jin Zhang
mTOR AIMTOR, BRET biosensor for mTOR signaling AIMTOR, a BRET biosensor for live imaging, reveals subcellular mTOR signaling and dysfunctions. BMC Biol. 2020 Jul 3;18(1):81. Anne Bonnieu
PKA NIR biosensors for detection of Protein kinase A (PKA) activity Smallest near-infrared fluorescent protein evolved from cyanobacteriochrome as versatile tag for spectral multiplexing. Nat Commun. 2019 Jan 17;10(1):279. Vladislav Verkhusha
PKA Detecting PKA activity using ratiometric imaging A Highly Sensitive A-Kinase Activity Reporter for Imaging Neuromodulatory Events in Awake Mice. Neuron. 2018 Aug 22;99(4):665-679.e5. Haining Zhong
PKA Biosensors for PKA activity (AKARet), cytosol and PD targeted Imaging ERK and PKA Activation in Single Dendritic Spines during Structural Plasticity. Neuron. 2017 Mar 22;93(6):1315-1324.e3. Ryohei Yasuda
PKA Fluorescent biosensors for imaging of PKA activity Zhang Lab AKAR Plasmids Jin Zhang
PKC Fluorescent biosensors for imaging of PKC activity Zhang Lab CKAR Plasmids Jin Zhang
Ras Ras sensor for highly sensitive and quantitative FRET-FLIM imaging An improved Ras sensor for highly sensitive and quantitative FRET-FLIM imaging. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e52874. Ryohei Yasuda
RhoA FRET biosensors for RhoA activity Gadella Lab RhoA Sensor Plasmids Dorus Gadella
RhoA FRET biosensor for RhoA activity A Versatile Toolkit to Produce Sensitive FRET Biosensors to Visualize Signaling in Time and Space. Sci Signal. 2013 Jul 23;6(285):rs12. Olivier Pertz
RhoA Visualize RhoA activity in live cells Spatiotemporal dynamics of RhoA activity in migrating cells. Nature. 2006 Apr 20. 440(7087):1069-72. Klaus Hahn
RhoC RhoC biosensor A RhoC biosensor reveals differences in the activation kinetics of RhoA and RhoC in migrating cells. PLoS One. 2013 Nov 5;8(11):e79877. Klaus Hahn
Src Src kinase activity in mammalian cells Determination of hierarchical relationship of Src and Rac at subcellular locations with FRET biosensors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Sep 23;105(38):14353-8. Yingxiao Wang
TG2 Assessment of TG2 conformational changes in live cells using FRET Using FLIM-FRET to measure conformational changes of transglutaminase type 2 in live cells. PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e44159. Jeffrey Keillor, Ray Truant
Thioredoxin Monitoring thioredoxin redox state Monitoring thioredoxin redox with a genetically encoded red fluorescent biosensor. Nat Chem Biol. 2017 Jun 26. Huiwang Ai
Thioredoxin Improved red fluorescent biosensors for thioredoxin redox state Ai Lab Thioredoxin Sensor Plasmids Huiwang Ai
Ubiquitin High-affinity free ubiquitin sensors High-affinity free ubiquitin sensors for quantifying ubiquitin homeostasis and deubiquitination. Nat Methods. 2019 Jul 15. pii: 10.1038/s41592-019-0469-9. Robert Cohen
VEGF Based on modular extracellular sensor architecture (MESA) receptors Rewiring human cellular input-output using modular extracellular sensors. Nat Chem Biol. 2016 Dec 12. Joshua Leonard

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