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Fluorescent Proteins: Biosensors

Fluorescent biosensors are proteins designed so that their fluorescent properties are sensitive to the presence of specific molecules or other factors. Most often, a conformational change in the sensing region of the construct leads to a change in signal intensity of a circularly permuted fluorescent protein (cpFP) or Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency of a pair of fluorescent proteins. Genetically encoded biosensors can be introduced into cells, tissues, or organisms for long-term imaging and can be designed to specifically localize to cellular compartments or organelles. Addgene’s database includes many fluorescent biosensors that signal the presence of specific biomolecules, the activity of specific genes and cellular processes, or other factors.

With proper experimental design, biosensors can enable investigation of a signaling pathway or measurement of a biomolecule while largely preserving spatial and temporal cellular processes. Note that many of the articles linked below include variants with different binding affinities or negative-control constructs used to characterize the sensor's behavior in the target system. Use care when applying a biosensor in a novel context or modifying an existing construct, as fluorescence properties can be affected by environmental factors and the sensor behavior may differ from the original characterization (e.g. in vitro vs. in vivo, cytoplasmic vs. extracellular vs. organelle-localized, etc.).

Browse or search the tables below highlighting a few popular categories of biosensors or browse all the biosensors tagged in our catalog. Use the article links to find the plasmids associated with the article. We also offer ready-to-use AAV preparations of select plasmids; these are noted with the viral service icon .

Metal Ions

Target Description Article PI
Calcium jGCaMP8 Fast Genetically Encoded Calcium Indicators (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) jGCaMP8 Fast Genetically Encoded Calcium Indicators. Janelia Research Campus. Online resource. 2020 GENIE Project
Calcium jGCaMP7 High-performance GFP-based calcium indicators (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) High-performance calcium sensors for imaging activity in neuronal populations and microcompartments. Nat Methods. 2019 Jul;16(7):649-657. Douglas Kim, GENIE Project
Calcium Soma-targeted expression of GCaMP7f or GCaMP6f Precision Calcium Imaging of Dense Neural Populations via a Cell-Body-Targeted Calcium Indicator. Neuron. 2020 Jun 26. pii: S0896-6273(20)30398-6. Edward Boyden
Calcium Bicistronic vector expressing GCaMP6 and mRuby2 for imaging neural activity (GCaMP6f/m/s) (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) Cell-specific restoration of stimulus preference after monocular deprivation in the visual cortex. Science. 2016 Jun 10;352(6291):1319-22. Tobias Bonhoeffer, Mark Huebener, Tobias Rose
Calcium GCaMP6f/s Ca sensors and separate nuclear localized dTomato fluorophore Ting Lab GCaMP6 Plasmids 2014 Jonathan Ting
Calcium GCaMP6f/m/s calcium sensors for imaging neural activity (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) Ultrasensitive fluorescent proteins for imaging neuronal activity. Nature. 2013 Jul 18;499(7458):295-300. Douglas Kim, GENIE Project
Calcium Intersectional viral expression of GCaMP6m/s in cells depdent on Cre, Flp, or Vcre Comprehensive Dual- and Triple-Feature Intersectional Single-Vector Delivery of Diverse Functional Payloads to Cells of Behaving Mammals. Neuron. 2020 Jun 20. pii: S0896-6273(20)30432-3. Karl Deisseroth, INTRSECT 2.0 Project
Calcium Expression of GCaMP6f in PV cortical interneurons under the control of the E2 regulatory element Viral manipulation of functionally distinct interneurons in mice, non-human primates and humans. Nat Neurosci. 2020 Dec;23(12):1629-1636. Jordane Dimidschstein
Calcium Enriched expression of GCaMP6s or GCaMP6f in axons (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) In vivo measurement of afferent activity with axon-specific calcium imaging. Nat Neurosci. 2018 Sep;21(9):1272-1280. Lin Tian
Calcium Expression of GCaMP6s or GCaMP7b sensors fused to synaptophysin (Cre or Flp-dependent) Larsen Lab AAV GCaMP6 Plasmids Rylan Larsen
Calcium Calcium sensor in astrocytes (GCaMP6f), cytosolic Conditions and constraints for astrocyte calcium signaling in the hippocampal mossy fiber pathway. Neuron. 2014 Apr 16;82(2):413-29. Baljit Khakh
Calcium Calcium sensor in astrocytes (GCaMP6f), membrane-tethered Khakh Lab pZac2.1 gfaABC1D-lck-GCaMP6f Plasmid Baljit Khakh
Calcium Axon-specific calcium imaging (GCaMP6f/m/s) (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) In vivo measurement of afferent activity with axon-specific calcium imaging. Nat Neurosci. 2018 Sep;21(9):1272-1280. Lin Tian
Calcium Plasma membrane targeted GCaMP6s calcium sensor A polarized Ca(2+), diacylglycerol and STIM1 signalling system regulates directed cell migration. Nat Cell Biol. 2014 Feb;16(2):133-44. Tobias Meyer
Calcium Cytosolic GCaMP6F, mitochondria Mitycam, or ER targeted GCaMPer Multiplexed Optical Sensors in Arrayed Islands of Cells for multimodal recordings of cellular physiology. Nat Commun. 2020 Aug 4;11(1):3881. Adam Cohen
Calcium GCaMP6f expression in forebrain GABA-ergic interneurons under the control of the mDlx enhancer A viral strategy for targeting and manipulating interneurons across vertebrate species. Nat Neurosci. 2016 Oct 31. Gordon Fishell
Calcium GCaMP-X genetic encoded calcium sensor Improved calcium sensor GCaMP-X overcomes the calcium channel perturbations induced by the calmodulin in GCaMP. Nat Commun. 2018 Apr 17;9(1):1504. Xiaodong Liu
Calcium NEMO calcium sensors Engineering of NEMO as calcium indicators with large dynamics and high sensitivity. Nat Methods. 2023 Jun;20(6):918-924. Yubin Zhou
Calcium Twitch calcium indicator, based on C-terminal domain of troponin C Griesbeck Lab Twitch Plasmids Oliver Griesbeck
Calcium erGAP3 (GFP-Aequorin Protein) for imaging of Ca+ dynamics in endoplasmic reticulum GFP-Aequorin Protein Sensor for Ex Vivo and In Vivo Imaging of Ca Dynamics in High-Ca Organelles. Cell Chem Biol. 2016 Jun 1. pii: S2451-9456(16)30163-5. Teresa Alonso, Javier García-Sancho
Calcium Large palette of genetically encoded Calcium indicators (GECOs) An Expanded Palette of Genetically Encoded Ca2+ Indicators. Science. 2011 Sep 8. Robert Campbell
Calcium D and D2 family Cameleon calcium sensors Bcl-2-mediated alterations in endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ analyzed with an improved genetically encoded fluorescent sensor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Dec 14;101(50):17404-9.

Ca2+ indicators based on computationally redesigned calmodulin-peptide pairs. Chem Biol. 2006 May;13(5):521-30.
Amy Palmer, Roger Tsien
Calcium Turquoise genetically encoded calcium sensor (GECI) that reports with lifetime and intensity changes A turquoise fluorescence lifetime-based biosensor for quantitative imaging of intracellular calcium. Nat Commun. 2021 Dec 9;12(1):7159. Dorus Gadella
Calcium Teal genetically encoded calcium sensor T-GECI A blue-shifted genetically encoded Ca2+ indicator with enhanced two-photon absorption. bioRxiv 2023.10.12.562058. Robert Campbell
Calcium Ratiometric calcium biosensors from nested reporters of green- and orange-emitting proteins Ratiometric Matryoshka biosensors from a nested cassette of green- and orange-emitting fluorescent proteins. Nat Commun. 2017 Sep 5;8(1):431. Wolf Frommer
Calcium Red-, yellow-, or cyan-emitting homoFRET/anisotropy Cameleon calcium sensors Single-color, ratiometric biosensors for detecting signaling activities in live cells. Elife. 2018 Jul 3;7. Jin Zhang
Calcium ER or mitochondria-targeted CEPIA calcium sensors (green, red or blue/green) Imaging intraorganellar Ca(2+) at subcellular resolution using CEPIA. Nat Commun. 2014 Jun 13;5:4153. Masamitsu Iino
Calcium Red mitochondrial CEPIA calcium sensors Red fluorescent CEPIA indicators for visualization of Ca(2+) dynamics in mitochondria. Sci Rep. 2020 Feb 18;10(1):2835. Masamitsu Iino
Calcium Red fluorescent calcium sensors (fRCaMP1/2, GECO1/2) The kinetic mechanisms of fast-decay red-fluorescent genetically encoded calcium indicators. J Biol Chem. 2019 Mar 15;294(11):3934-3946. Katalin Torok
Calcium Red Calcium indicators based on mRuby (jRCaMP1a, b) and mApple (jRGECO1a) (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) Sensitive red protein calcium indicators for imaging neural activity. Elife. 2016 Mar 24;5. pii: e12727. Douglas Kim, GENIE Project
Calcium Red Calcium sensor with brighter fluorescence and faster kinetics (CaMPARI2) Improved methods for marking active neuron populations. Nat Commun. 2018 Oct 25;9(1):4440. Eric Schreiter
Calcium AAV expression of photoconvertible fluorescent protein-based calcium integrator (CaMPARI) (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) Neural circuits. Labeling of active neural circuits in vivo with designed calcium integrators. Science. 2015 Feb 13;347(6223):755-60. Loren Looger, Eric Schreiter
Calcium Intersectional viral expression of sRGECO (constitutive or Cre- or Flp-dependent) Comprehensive Dual- and Triple-Feature Intersectional Single-Vector Delivery of Diverse Functional Payloads to Cells of Behaving Mammals. Neuron. 2020 Jun 20. pii: S0896-6273(20)30432-3. Karl Deisseroth, INTRSECT 2.0 Project
Calcium Mitochondrial and cytosolic RCaMP1h calcium sensors, ER-targeted CEPIA1er ER-mitochondria tethering by PDZD8 regulates Ca(2+) dynamics in mammalian neurons. Science. 2017 Nov 3;358(6363):623-630. Franck Polleux
Calcium Astrocyte AAV-mediated expression of jRCaMP1a, a red fluorescent calcium sensor Using Genetically Encoded Calcium Indicators to Study Astrocyte Physiology: A Field Guide. Front Cell Neurosci. 2021 Jun 11;15:690147. Thomas Oertner
Calcium Far-red fluorescent calcium ion indicators FR-GECO1 Robert Campbell Lab (unpublished) Robert Campbell
Calcium Yellow protein calcium sensor jYCaMP1 variants (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) jYCaMP: an optimized calcium indicator for two-photon imaging at fiber laser wavelengths. Nat Methods. 2020 May 25. pii: 10.1038/s41592-020-0835-7. Kaspar Podgorski
Calcium HaloCaMP1 chemigenetic calcium indicator for fluorescence using HaloTag ligands Bright and tunable far-red chemigenetic indicators. bioRxiv 2020.01.08.898783 Eric Schreiter
Calcium WHaloCaMP1 chemigenetic calcium indicator for fluorescence using HaloTag ligands A modular chemigenetic calcium indicator enables in vivo functional imaging with near-infrared light. bioRxiv 2023.07.18.549527 Eric Schreiter
Calcium GCEPIA1-SNAPER for sensing ER calcium A genetically encoded ratiometric calcium sensor enables quantitative measurement of the local calcium microdomain in the endoplasmic reticulum. Biophys Rep (2019) 5, 31–42 Pingyong Xu
Magnesium Fluorescent Mg2+ sensor (MARIO) A Transient Rise in Free Mg(2+) Ions Released from ATP-Mg Hydrolysis Contributes to Mitotic Chromosome Condensation. Curr Biol. 2018 Feb 5;28(3):444-451.e6. Takeharu Nagai
Magnesium MagFRET-1 Mg2+ sensor, based on Cerulean/Citrine MagFRET: The First Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Mg(2+) Sensor. PLoS One. 2013 Dec 2;8(12):e82009. Maarten Merkx
Potassium Green fluorescence indicator of K+ for optical imaging (GINKO) Genetically encoded fluorescent indicators for imaging intracellular potassium ion concentration. Commun Biol. 2019 Jan 14;2:18. Robert Campbell
Zinc FRET-based zinc sensor for imaging in live cells (CALWY) Genetically encoded FRET sensors to monitor intracellular Zn(2+) homeostasis. Nat Methods. 2009 Oct;6(10):737-40. Maarten Merkx
Zinc eZinCh-2 Zn2+ FRET sensor, cytosolic or ER-targeted eZinCh-2: A Versatile, Genetically Encoded FRET Sensor for Cytosolic and Intraorganelle Zn(2+) Imaging. ACS Chem Biol. 2015 Sep 18;10(9):2126-34. Maarten Merkx
Zinc Cytosolic Cyan-Yellow Zinc FRET sensors ZapCV2 and ZapCV5 Droplet Microfluidic Flow Cytometer For Sorting On Transient Cellular Responses Of Genetically-Encoded Sensors. Anal Chem. 2017 Jan 3;89(1):711-719. Amy Palmer
Zinc Cyan-Yellow Zinc FRET sensors ZapCY1 and ZapCY2, Golgi or ER targeted Measuring steady-state and dynamic endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi Zn2+ with genetically encoded sensors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 May 3;108(18):7351-6. Amy Palmer
Zinc Cytosolic or Nuclear zinc-binding FRET biosensor (Zap) New alternately colored FRET sensors for simultaneous monitoring of Zn(2)(+) in multiple cellular locations. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e49371.

Direct comparison of a genetically encoded sensor and small molecule indicator: implications for quantification of cytosolic Zn(2+). ACS Chem Biol. 2013 Nov 15;8(11):2366-71.
Amy Palmer
Zinc Cell surface localized zinc sensor ZIBG2 Genetically Encoded, Photostable Indicators to Image Dynamic Zn(2+) Secretion of Pancreatic Islets. Anal Chem. 2019 Oct 1;91(19):12212-12219. Huiwang Ai
Zinc GZnP2 Cytosolic fluorescent sensor for zinc Optical Recording of Zn(2+) Dynamics in the Mitochondrial Matrix and Intermembrane Space with the GZnP2 Sensor. ACS Chem Biol. 2018 Jul 20;13(7):1897-1905. Yan Qin

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Small Molecules

Target Description Article PI
Adenosine Express the adenosine sensor GRAB_Ado1.0 in neurons or astrocytes, (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) Li Lab GRAB_Ado Plasmids Yulong Li
ADP A fluorescent, reagentless biosensor for ADP based on tetramethylrhodamine-labeled ParM A fluorescent, reagentless biosensor for ADP based on tetramethylrhodamine-labeled ParM. ACS Chem Biol. 2010 Apr 16;5(4):415-25. Martin Webb
ATP Multicolor palette of ATP indicators (MaLion) RGB-color intensiometric indicators visualize spatiotemporal dynamics of ATP in single cells. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2018 Jun 27. Tetsuya Kitaguchi
ATP Variants of ATP sensor iATPSnFR1.0 and iATPSnFR1.1 (cytoplasmic, membrane-displayed, expression in neurons, astrocytes) A genetically encoded single-wavelength sensor for imaging cytosolic and cell surface ATP. Nat Commun. 2019 Feb 12;10(1):711. Baljit Khakh
ATP ATP sensor for Yeast (AT1.03 derived) Dynamic analysis of cytosolic glucose and ATP levels in yeast using optical sensors. Biochem J. 2010 Dec 1. Wolf Frommer
ATP yAT1.03 FRET-based ATP sensor for yeast An Improved ATP FRET Sensor For Yeast Shows Heterogeneity During Nutrient Transitions. ACS Sens. 2020 Mar 27;5(3):814-822. Bas Teusink
ATP (extracellular) ecAT3.10 extracellular ATP sensor (cell surface targeted) Imaging extracellular ATP with a genetically-encoded, ratiometric fluorescent sensor. PLoS One. 2017 Nov 9;12(11):e0187481. Mathew Tantama
ATP QUEEN ATP sensors for live-cell imaging Live cell imaging of metabolic heterogeneity by quantitative fluorescent ATP indicator protein, QUEEN-37C. bioRxiv 2021.10.08.463131. Yasushi Okada
ATP (extracellular) GRAB_ATP1.0/ATP1.0mut biosensor for extracellular ATP (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) A sensitive GRAB sensor for detecting extracellular ATP in vitro and in vivo. Neuron. 2021 Dec 17. pii: S0896-6273(21)00988-0. Yulong Li
ATP/ADP Monitor the ATP:ADP ratio during live-cell imaging (Perceval) A genetically encoded fluorescent reporter of ATP:ADP ratio. Nat Methods. 2009 Feb . 6(2):161-6. Gary Yellen
ATP/ADP Fluorescent sensor of ATP:ADP ratio (PercevalHR) Imaging energy status in live cells with a fluorescent biosensor of the intracellular ATP-to-ADP ratio. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2550. Gary Yellen
cAMP (cyclic AMP) Yellow fluorescent cAMP indicator (Flamindo2) Genetically-encoded yellow fluorescent cAMP indicator with an expanded dynamic range for dual-color imaging. PLoS One. 2014 Jun 24;9(6):e100252. Tetsuya Kitaguchi
cAMP (cyclic AMP) Red fluorescent protein-based cAMP indicator (Pink Flamindo) Red fluorescent protein-based cAMP indicator applicable to optogenetics and in vivo imaging. Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 4;7(1):7351. Tetsuya Kitaguchi
cAMP (cyclic AMP) Fluorescent sensor of cyclic AMP (cAMPr) for mammalian or insect expression (Cre-dependent) cAMPr: A single-wavelength fluorescent sensor for cyclic AMP. Sci Signal. 2018 Mar 6;11(520). pii: 11/520/eaah3738. Justin Blau
cAMP (cyclic AMP) cAMPFIRE cAMP biosensors with improved sensitivity Sensitive genetically encoded sensors for population and subcellular imaging of cAMP in vivo. Nat Methods. 2022 Nov;19(11):1461-1471. Haining Zhong
cAMP (cyclic AMP) RAB-ICUE red biosensor for monitoring cAMP dynamics Single-fluorophore biosensors for sensitive and multiplexed detection of signalling activities. Nat Cell Biol. 2018 Sep 24. pii: 10.1038/s41556-018-0200-6. Jin Zhang
cAMP (cyclic AMP) Yellow-emitting homoFRET/anisotropy ICUE cAMP sensor Single-color, ratiometric biosensors for detecting signaling activities in live cells. Elife. 2018 Jul 3;7. pii: 35458 Jin Zhang
cAMP (cyclic AMP) Signaling reporter island (SiRI) with GFP-based fluorescent reporter cAMPr Spatial Multiplexing of Fluorescent Reporters for Imaging Signaling Network Dynamics. Cell. 2020 Nov 17. pii: S0092-8674(20)31399-4. Edward Boyden
cAMP (cyclic AMP) FRET sensors of cAMP levels for imaging in live cells Fourth-generation epac-based FRET sensors for cAMP feature exceptional brightness, photostability and dynamic range: characterization of dedicated sensors for FLIM, for ratiometry and with high affinity. PLoS One. 2015 Apr 14;10(4):e0122513. Kees Jalink
cAMP (cyclic AMP) Fluorescent protein exchange sensor for cAMP Ratiometric biosensors based on dimerization-dependent fluorescent protein exchange. Nat Methods. 2015 Jan 26. Anne Marie Quinn
cAMP (cyclic AMP) Green cAMP biosensors FLAMP1 and FLAMP2 Chu Lab FLAMP Plasmids Jun Chu
cGMP (cyclic GMP) FlincG GFP-based cGMP sensor Differential patterning of cGMP in vascular smooth muscle cells revealed by single GFP-linked biosensors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jan 8. Wolfgang Dostmann
cGMP (cyclic GMP) Green fluorescent probe for cGMP (cGull) Generation of a cGMP Indicator with an Expanded Dynamic Range by Optimization of Amino Acid Linkers between a Fluorescent Protein and PDE5alpha. ACS Sens. 2017 Jan 27;2(1):46-51. Tetsuya Kitaguchi
cGMP (cyclic GMP) FlincG3 (GFP-based cGMP sensor) for imaging in C. elegans neurons Using a Robust and Sensitive GFP-Based cGMP Sensor for Real Time Imaging in Intact Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics. 2019 Jul 22. pii: genetics.119.302392. Noelle L'Etoile, Miri VanHoven
cGMP (cyclic GMP) FlincG-type fluorescent biosensors for neural cGMP imaging Improved genetically-encoded, FlincG-type fluorescent biosensors for neural cGMP imaging. Front Mol Neurosci. 2013 Sep 24;6:26. John Garthwaite
cGMP (cyclic GMP) FRET-based cGMP biosensor SponGee: A Genetic Tool for Subcellular and Cell-Specific cGMP Manipulation. Cell Rep. 2019 Jun 25;27(13):4003-4012.e6. Xavier Nicol
cyclic di-GMP FRET-based biosensor for cyclic-di-GMP measurement Asymmetrical distribution of the second messenger c-di-GMP upon bacterial cell division. Science. 2010 Jun 4;328(5983):1295-7. Samuel Miller
Chloride (Cl-) ClopHensor biosensor for intracellular chloride and pH Arosio Lab ClopHensor Plasmids Daniele Arosio
Chloride (Cl-) Dual ClopHensorN chloride and proton sensor A genetically-encoded chloride and pH sensor for dissociating ion dynamics in the nervous system. Front Cell Neurosci. 2013 Nov 13;7:202. Colin Akerman
Chloride (Cl-) YFP-derived sensor for measuring Cl- concentration in physiological range A genetically-encoded YFP sensor with enhanced chloride sensitivity, photostability and reduced ph interference demonstrates augmented transmembrane chloride movement by gerbil prestin (SLC26a5). PLoS One. 2014 Jun 5;9(6):e99095. Joseph Santos-Sacchi
Chloride (Cl-) ClopHensorN chloride sensor (cytosolic) Multiplexed Optical Sensors in Arrayed Islands of Cells for multimodal recordings of cellular physiology. Nat Commun. 2020 Aug 4;11(1):3881. Adam Cohen
Chloride (Cl-) Membrane-targeted biosensor for monitoring changes in intracellular chloride A sensitive membrane-targeted biosensor for monitoring changes in intracellular chloride in neuronal processes. PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e35373. Susan Amara, Susan Ingram
Citrate Nanosensors for in vivo measurements of citrate (CitA) Engineering genetically encoded nanosensors for real-time in vivo measurements of citrate concentrations. PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e28245. Uwe Sauer
Citrate Direct or inverse fluorescent biosensor for citrate (Citron/Citroff), mitochondrial or cytosolic High-Performance Intensiometric Direct- and Inverse-Response Genetically Encoded Biosensors for Citrate. ACS Cent Sci. 2020 Aug 26;6(8):1441-1450. Robert Campbell
Glucose FRET sensor to monitor glucose levels and transport (FLIPglu) Frommer Lab FLIPglu Plasmids Wolf Frommer
Glucose FRET sensor to monitor glucose levels and transport (FLIIglu) Frommer Lab FLIIglu Plasmids Wolf Frommer
Glucose Green fluorescent glucose indicators for living cells (Glifons) Green Fluorescent Protein-Based Glucose Indicators Report Glucose Dynamics in Living Cells. Anal Chem. 2019 Apr 2;91(7):4821-4830. Tetsuya Kitaguchi
Glucose Red fluorescent glucose indicators for living cells (Glifons) Development of red genetically encoded biosensor for visualization of intracellular glucose dynamics. Cell Chem Biol. 2021 Jun 29. pii: S2451-9456(21)00301-9. Takashi Tsuboi
Glucose iGlucoSnFR-TS biosensor for intracellular glucose Quantitative in vivo imaging of neuronal glucose concentrations with a genetically encoded fluorescence lifetime sensor. J Neurosci Res. 2019 May 20. Gary Yellen
Glucose iGlucoSnFR biosensors for cytosolic glucose Looger Lab Glucose Sensor Plasmids Loren Looger
Glutamine FLIPQTV3.0 glutamine sensor variants Visualization of glutamine transporter activities in living cells using genetically encoded glutamine sensors. PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e38591. Sakiko Okumoto
Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) Fluorescent reporter of cytosolic hydrogen peroxide Monitoring the action of redox-directed cancer therapeutics using a human peroxiredoxin-2-based probe. Nat Commun. 2018 Aug 7;9(1):3145. Hadley Sikes
Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) Monitoring of basal H2O2 levels with peroxiredoxin-based probes Real-time monitoring of basal H2O2 levels with peroxiredoxin-based probes. Nat Chem Biol. 2016 Jun;12(6):437-43. Tobias Dick
Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) HyPer biosensor to measure changes in intracellular hydrogen peroxide concentration Belousov Lab HyPer Plasmids Vsevolod Belousov
Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) Cytosolic or mitochondrial sensor for H2O2 oxidation (roGFP2-Orp1) Multiplexed Optical Sensors in Arrayed Islands of Cells for multimodal recordings of cellular physiology. Nat Commun. 2020 Aug 4;11(1):3881 Adam Cohen
Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) Hydrogen peroxide biosensor HyPer7 Caveolae respond to acute oxidative stress through membrane lipid peroxidation, cytosolic release of CAVIN1, and downstream regulation of NRF2. bioRxiv 2021.06.09.447684. Rob Parton
Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) Expresses hydrogen peroxide biosensor HyPer2 in plant cells Photosynthesis-dependent H2O2 transfer from chloroplasts to nuclei provides a high-light signalling mechanism. Nat Commun. 2017 Jun 29;8(1):49. Philip Mullineaux
Insulin Sensor for Imaging Insulin Secretion A Ratiometric Sensor for Imaging Insulin Secretion in Single beta Cells. Cell Chem Biol. 2017 Apr 20;24(4):525-531.e4. Dmytro Yushchenko
Lactate Laconic FRET-based lactate sensor Barros Lab Laconic Plasmids Luis Felipe Barros
Lactate/Pyruvate Lapronic FRET-based sensor for Lactate/Pyruvate Ratio Imaging of the Lactate/Pyruvate Ratio Using a Genetically Encoded FRET Indicator. Anal Chem. 2020 Jun 29. Luis Felipe Barros
Lactate Expresses eLACCO1.1 fluorescent biosensor for extracellular L-lactate, in neurons, astrocytes or mammalian cells A genetically encoded fluorescent biosensor for extracellular L-lactate. Nat Commun. 2021 Dec 6;12(1):7058. Marie-Eve Paquet, Robert Campbell
Lactate Lindoblum green fluorescent biosensor for lactate Green fluorescent protein-based lactate and pyruvate indicators suitable for biochemical assays and live cell imaging. Sci Rep. 2020 Nov 11;10(1):19562. Takashi Tsuboi
Maltose Single fluorescent protein biosensor for maltose Rapid construction of metabolite biosensors using domain-insertion profiling. Nat Commun. 2016 Jul 29;7:12266. David Savage
Maltose Monitor maltose levels and metabolism (FLIPmal) Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer sensors for quantitative monitoring of pentose and disaccharide accumulation in bacteria. Biotechnol Biofuels. 2008 Jun 3. 1(1):11. Wolf Frommer
Maltose Green fluorescent MBP-based maltose biosensor A genetically encoded, high-signal-to-noise maltose sensor. Proteins. 2011 Nov;79(11):3025-36. Loren Looger
NADH/NAD+ Fluorescent biosensor of NAD/NADH (RexYFP) Genetically encoded fluorescent indicator for imaging NAD/NADH ratio changes in different cellular compartments. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013 Nov 25. pii: S0304-4165(13)00519-9. Vsevolod Belousov
NADH/NAD+ Peredox Fluorescent biosensor of the cytosolic NADH/NAD+ redox state Imaging Cytosolic NADH-NAD(+) Redox State with a Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Biosensor. Cell Metab. 2011 Oct 5;14(4):545-54. Gary Yellen
NADH/NAD+ Peredox fluorescent sensor protein for NADH/NAD+ ratio Cytosolic NADH-NAD Redox Visualized in Brain Slices by Two-Photon Fluorescence Lifetime Biosensor Imaging. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2016 Mar 18. Gary Yellen
NADH/NAD+ Cytosolic expression of fluorescent NADH/NAD+ biosensor Peredox-mCherry in plants In Vivo NADH/NAD+ Biosensing Reveals the Dynamics of Cytosolic Redox Metabolism in Plants. Plant Cell. 2020 Aug 13. pii: tpc.20.00241. Markus Schwarzländer
NADPH BRET semi-synthetic biosensor measuring the NADPH concentration Semisynthetic sensor proteins enable metabolic assays at the point of care. Science. 2018 Sep 14;361(6407):1122-1126. Kai Johnsson
NADPH/NADP+ or NAD+ Snifit FRET-based sensors of NADPH/NADP+ ratio or NAD+ Semisynthetic biosensors for mapping cellular concentrations of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides. Elife. 2018 May 29;7. pii: 32638. Kai Johnsson
Phosphate Scaffold for inorganic phosphate biosensor Development of a Reagentless Biosensor for Inorganic Phosphate, Applicable over a Wide Concentration Range. Biochemistry. 2015 Aug 18;54(32):5054-62. Martin Webb
Phosphate FRET-based phosphate sensor (FLIPPi) A novel analytical method for in vivo phosphate tracking. FEBS Lett. 2006 Oct 30. 580(25):5885-93. Wolf Frommer
Pyruvate Pyronic FRET sensor for pyruvate Imaging Mitochondrial Flux in Single Cells with a FRET Sensor for Pyruvate. PLoS One. 2014 Jan 21;9(1):e85780. Luis Felipe Barros
Pyruvate Pyronic single-fluorophore sensor for pyruvate A highly responsive pyruvate sensor reveals pathway-regulatory role of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier MPC. Elife. 2020 Mar 6;9. pii: 53917. Luis Felipe Barros
Pyruvate Pegassos green fluorescent biosensor for pyruvate Green fluorescent protein-based lactate and pyruvate indicators suitable for biochemical assays and live cell imaging. Sci Rep. 2020 Nov 11;10(1):19562. Takashi Tsuboi
Sucrose FRET-based sensor to monitor sucrose levels, FLIPsuc Conversion of a putative Agrobacterium sugar-binding protein into a FRET sensor with high selectivity for sucrose. J Biol Chem. 2006 Oct 13. 281(41):30875-83. Wolf Frommer
Trehalose Single fluorescent protein biosensor for trehalose Rapid construction of metabolite biosensors using domain-insertion profiling. Nat Commun. 2016 Jul 29;7:12266. David Savage
Tryptophan Visualize intracellular tryptophan levels and flux Nanosensor detection of an immunoregulatory tryptophan influx/kynurenine efflux cycle. PLoS Biol. 2007 Oct;5(10):e257. Wolf Frommer

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Target Description Article PI
Acetylcholine Family of ACh sensors (GACh) based on G-protein-coupled receptors A genetically encoded fluorescent acetylcholine indicator for in vitro and in vivo studies. Nat Biotechnol. 2018 Sep;36(8):726-737. Yulong Li
Acetylcholine Optimized acetylcholine sensor for monitoring in vivo cholinergic activity (GACh3.0) (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) An optimized acetylcholine sensor for monitoring in vivo cholinergic activity. Nat Methods. 2020 Sep 28. pii: 10.1038/s41592-020-0953-2. Yulong Li
Acetylcholine Fluorescent sensor for in vivo acetylcholine detection (iAchSnFR) (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) A fast genetically encoded fluorescent sensor for faithful in vivo acetylcholine detection in mice, fish, worms and flies. bioRxiv 2020.02.07.939504 Loren Looger, J. Julius Zhu
Dopamine Red and green GRAB_DA3 dopamine sensors Improved green and red GRAB sensors for monitoring dopaminergic activity in vivo. Nat Methods. 2023 Nov 30. Yulong Li
Dopamine Dopamine sensors GRAB_DA2 Next-generation GRAB sensors for monitoring dopaminergic activity in vivo. Nat Methods. 2020 Nov;17(11):1156-1166. Yulong Li
Dopamine Ultrafast neuronal imaging of dopamine dynamics (dLight1.1-1.5) Ultrafast neuronal imaging of dopamine dynamics with designed genetically encoded sensors. Science. 2018 Jun 29;360(6396). pii: science.aat4422. Lin Tian
Dopamine Yellow or Red genetically encoded dopamine sensor YdLight1 and RdLight1 An expanded palette of dopamine sensors for multiplex imaging in vivo. Nat Methods. 2020 Nov;17(11):1147-1155. Lin Tian
Endocannabinoid GRAB_eCB2.0/eCBmut biosensor for endocannabinoids in vivo (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) A fluorescent sensor for spatiotemporally resolved imaging of endocannabinoid dynamics in vivo. Nat Biotechnol. 2021 Nov 11. pii: 10.1038/s41587-021-01074-4. Yulong Li
GABA GABA Sensor (iGABASnFR) (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) A genetically encoded fluorescent sensor for in vivo imaging of GABA. Nat Methods. 2019 Aug;16(8):763-770. Loren Looger
GABA A fluorescent sensor for GABA and synthetic GABA(B) receptor ligands (GABA-Snifit) A fluorescent sensor for GABA and synthetic GABA(B) receptor ligands. J Am Chem Soc. 2012 Nov 21;134(46):19026-34. Kai Johnsson
Glutamate Third generation glutamate sensors (iGluSnFR3) for improved imaging of synaptic transmission Glutamate indicators with improved activation kinetics and localization for imaging synaptic transmission. Nat Methods. 2023 May 4. Kaspar Podgorski
Glutamate FRET sensor to monitor glutamate transport and metabolism (FLIPE) Frommer Lab FLIPE Plasmids Wolf Frommer
Glutamate Ultrafast glutamate sensors (iGluSnFR variants) Ultrafast glutamate sensors resolve high-frequency release at Schaffer collateral synapses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 May 7. pii: 1720648115. Katalin Torok
Glutamate Membrane displayed variants of fluorescent glutatmate sensors (iGluSnFR1) Genetically Encoded Glutamate Indicators with Altered Color and Topology. ACS Chem Biol. 2018 Jan 22. Robert Campbell
Glutamate Targeted sensors for glutamatergic neurotransmission Targeted sensors for glutamatergic neurotransmission. Elife. 2023 Jan 9;12:e84029. Andrew Plested
Glutamate iGluSnFR glutamate sensor with improved trafficking to the plasma membrane Acute disruption of the synaptic vesicle membrane protein synaptotagmin 1 using knockoff in mouse hippocampal neurons. Elife. 2020 Jun 9;9. pii: 56469. Edwin Chapman
Neuropeptides GRAB biosensors for neuropeptides VIP, NPY, CCK, NTS, UCN, SST, and CRF A tool kit of highly selective and sensitive genetically encoded neuropeptide sensors. Science. 2023 Nov 17;382(6672):eabq8173. Yulong Li
Norepinephrine nLight red and green GPCR-based NE indicators Sensitive multicolor indicators for monitoring norepinephrine in vivo. Nat Methods. 2023 Sep;20(9):1426-1436. Tommaso Patriarchi
Norepinephrine GRAB_NE family of GPCR activation-based NE sensors A Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Sensor for Rapid and Specific In Vivo Detection of Norepinephrine. Neuron. 2019 May 22;102(4):745-761.e8. Yulong Li, J. Julius Zhu
Orexin OxLight1 fluorescent reporter for orexin neuropeptides A genetically encoded sensor for in vivo imaging of orexin neuropeptides. Nat Methods. 2022 Feb;19(2):231-241. Tommaso Patriarchi
Serotonin Red and green serotonin sensors GRAB_5-HT3.0 Dual-color GRAB sensors for monitoring spatiotemporal serotonin release in vivo. bioRxiv 2023.05.27.542566. Yulong Li
Serotonin Serotonin (5-HT) sensor GRAB_5-HT1.0 for viral expression in neurons A genetically encoded sensor for measuring serotonin dynamics. Nat Neurosci. 2021 Apr 5. Yulong Li, J. Julius Zhu
Serotonin Serotonin sensor iSeroSnFR for bacterial or mammalian expression (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) Directed Evolution of a Selective and Sensitive Serotonin Sensor via Machine Learning. Cell. 2020 Dec 12. pii: S0092-8674(20)31612-3. Lin Tian
Serotonin Serotonin (5-HT) sensor psychLight Psychedelic-inspired drug discovery using an engineered biosensor. Cell. 2021 Apr 8. pii: S0092-8674(21)00374-3. Lin Tian
Serotonin Cilia-targeted serotonin sensor GRAB-HTR6 A serotonergic axon-cilium synapse drives nuclear signaling to alter chromatin accessibility. Cell. 2022 Sep 1;185(18):3390-3407.e18. David Clapham

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Cell Physiology

Target Description Article PI
Autophagy Measure autophagic flux by pH-sensitive fluorescence (pMRX-IP-GFP-LC3-RFP) An Autophagic Flux Probe that Releases an Internal Control. Mol Cell. 2016 Nov 17;64(4):835-849. Noboru Mizushima
Autophagy Autophagosome maturation reporter (pmRFP-LC3) Dissection of the autophagosome maturation process by a novel reporter protein, tandem fluorescent-tagged LC3. Autophagy. 2007;3(5):452-60. Tamotsu Yoshimori
Autophagy Expresses pHluorin-mKate2-hLC3 (PK-hLC3) for monitoring autophagy A Super-Ecliptic, pHluorin-mKate2, Tandem Fluorescent Protein-Tagged Human LC3 for the Monitoring of Mammalian Autophagy. PLoS One. 2014 Oct 23;9(10):e110600. Isei Tanida
Electrostatic potential Quantitative measurements of membrane charges A FRET sensor enables quantitative measurements of membrane charges in live cells. Nat Biotechnol. 2017 Mar 13. Katharina Gaus
Endo/Exocytosis Superecliptic pHluorin fused to glutamate receptor Glutamate receptor exocytosis and spine enlargement during chemically induced long-term potentiation. J Neurosci. 2006 Feb 15. 26(7):2000-9. Robert Malinow
Endo/Exocytosis Synaptophysin-pHluorin Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is the dominant mechanism of vesicle retrieval at hippocampal synapses. Neuron. 2006 Sep 21. 51(6):773-86. Leon Lagnado
Endo/Exocytosis Synaptophysin with tandem repeats of pHluorin Two pathways of synaptic vesicle retrieval revealed by single-vesicle imaging. Neuron. 2009 Feb 12;61(3):397-411. Stephen Heinemann, Yongling Zhu
Mitophagy Dual-emission mitophagy biosensor (pH sensitive mt-mKeima) The ubiquitin kinase PINK1 recruits autophagy receptors to induce mitophagy. Nature. 2015 Aug 20;524(7565):309-14. Richard Youle
Osmolarity SED1 osmolarity biosensor, for expression in E. coli, yeast, or plants Intrinsically disordered protein biosensor tracks the physical-chemical effects of osmotic stress on cells. Nat Commun. 2021 Sep 14;12(1):5438. Cesar Cuevas-Velazquez, Jose Dinneny
Lysosomal pH Lyso-pHluorin for fluorescent readout of lysosome acidification Optogenetic acidification of synaptic vesicles and lysosomes. Nat Neurosci. 2015 Nov 9. Christian Rosenmund
pH Superecliptic pHluorin pH sensor Amiloride inhibits macropinocytosis by lowering submembranous pH and preventing Rac1 and Cdc42 signaling. J Cell Biol. 2010 Feb 22;188(4):547-63. Sergio Grinstein
pH Superfolder pHluorin pH sensor A superfolder variant of pH-sensitive pHluorin for in vivo pH measurements in the endoplasmic reticulum. Sci Rep. 2018 Aug 10;8(1):11985. Eckhard Boles
pH Imaging intracellular pH in live cells (pHRed) Imaging Intracellular pH in Live Cells with a Genetically Encoded Red Fluorescent Protein Sensor. J Am Chem Soc. 2011 Jul 6. 133(26):10034-7. Gary Yellen
pH Ratiometric pHluorin2 for pH sensing The zebrafish merovingian mutant reveals a role for pH regulation in hair cell toxicity and function. Dis Model Mech. 2014 Jul;7(7):847-56. David Raible
pH Red or Orange pH biosensors (pHuji and pHoran4) pHuji, a pH-sensitive red fluorescent protein for imaging of exo- and endocytosis. J Cell Biol. 2014 Nov 10;207(3):419-32. Robert Campbell
pH Red fluorescent pH biosensor mNectarine Red fluorescent protein pH biosensor to detect concentrative nucleoside transport. J Biol Chem. 2009 Jul 31;284(31):20499-511. Robert Campbell
pH Fluorescent pH biosensor (cytosolic and mitochondrial; SypHer3s) SypHer3s: a genetically encoded fluorescent ratiometric probe with enhanced brightness and an improved dynamic range. Chem Commun. 2018 Mar 2. Vsevolod Belousov
pH Fluorescent pH biosensor (cytosolic and mitochondrial; SypHer) Dynamic regulation of the mitochondrial proton gradient during cytosolic calcium elevations. J Biol Chem. 2011 Apr 1;286(13):11672-84. Nicolas Demaurex
pH Rosella Fluorescent pH-biosensor for reporting vacuolar turnover in yeast (cytosolic and mitochondrial) Rosella: a fluorescent pH-biosensor for reporting vacuolar turnover of cytosol and organelles in yeast. Autophagy. 2008 Feb;4(2):205-13. Mark Prescott
pH Synaptic vesicle pH sensors for imaging exocytosis and endocytosis (pHuji). Semisynthetic fluorescent pH sensors for imaging exocytosis and endocytosis. Nat Commun. 2017 Nov 10;8(1):1412. Justin Taraska, David Perrais
pH Sensor for intracellular chloride and pH (ClopHensor) Arosio Lab ClopHensor Plasmids Daniele Arosio
Redox/ROS Redox-sensitive cytosolic protein sensor Mitochondrial complex III is required for hypoxia-induced ROS production and cellular oxygen sensing. Cell Metab. 2005 Jun;1(6):401-8. Ulrich Hammerling
Redox/ROS Variants of Redox-sensitive protein sensors (roGFP) Lifetime imaging of a fluorescent protein sensor reveals surprising stability of ER thiol redox. J Cell Biol. 2013 Apr 15;201(2):337-49. David Ron
Redox/ROS Thiol redox-sensitive ratiometric sensor roGFP for mitochondria or cytosol Hypoxia triggers subcellular compartmental redox signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells. Circ Res. 2010 Feb 19;106(3):526-35. Paul Schumacker
Redox/ROS Glutathione redox sensors for cytosol, ER or mitochondria Multiplexed Optical Sensors in Arrayed Islands of Cells for multimodal recordings of cellular physiology. Nat Commun. 2020 Aug 4;11(1):3881. Adam Cohen
Redox/ROS Red fluorescent biosensor for glutathione redox changes Red fluorescent redox-sensitive biosensor Grx1-roCherry. Redox Biol. 2019 Feb;21:101071. Dmitry Bilan
Temperature Genetically encoded ratiometric fluorescent thermometer A highly-sensitive genetically encoded temperature indicator exploiting a temperature-responsive elastin-like polypeptide. Sci Rep. 2021 Aug 13;11(1):16519. Takeharu Nagai
Temperature Fluorescent temperature indicator B-gTEMP Intracellular Heat Transfer and Thermal Property Revealed by Kilohertz Temperature Imaging with a Genetically Encoded Nanothermometer. Nano Lett. 2022 Jul 27;22(14):5698-5707. Takeharu Nagai
Tension TS module, Vinculin tension sensors Measuring mechanical tension across vinculin reveals regulation of focal adhesion dynamics. Nature. 2010 Jul 8. 466(7303):263-6. Martin Schwartz
Tension Talin tension sensors Talin tension sensor reveals novel features of focal adhesion force transmission and mechanosensitivity. J Cell Biol. 2016 May 9;213(3):371-83. Martin Schwartz
Tension HP35-, FL, and F40-based tension sensor modules Grashoff Lab Tension Sensor Plasmids Carsten Grashoff
Tension tCRMod tension sensors Tunable molecular tension sensors reveal extension-based control of vinculin loading. Elife. 2018 Jul 19;7. pii: 33927. Brenton Hoffman
Voltage JEDI-2P voltage indicator for two-photon imaging Sustained deep-tissue voltage recording using a fast indicator evolved for two-photon microscopy. Cell. 2022 Aug 16. pii: S0092-8674(22)00916-3. Francois St-Pierre
Voltage Voltage Sensitive Fluorescent Protein (VSFP/Butterfly) Knopfel Lab VSFP Plasmids Thomas Knopfel
Voltage Detection of single action/excitatory potentials in individual neurons and dendrites (ArcLight) Single action potentials and subthreshold electrical events imaged in neurons with a fluorescent protein voltage probe. Neuron. 2012 Sep 6;75(5):779-85. Vincent Pieribone
Voltage ArcLight-ST to detect subthreshold membrane potential changes Simultaneous two-photon imaging of action potentials and subthreshold inputs in vivo. Nat Commun. 2021 Dec 10;12(1):7229. Rafael Yuste
Voltage Ultrafast fluorescent voltage sensor ASAP2f Subcellular Imaging of Voltage and Calcium Signals Reveals Neural Processing In Vivo. Cell. 2016 Jun 30;166(1):245-57. Michael Lin
Voltage Ultrafast fluorescent voltage sensor for detection of single action potentials (ASAP1) High-fidelity optical reporting of neuronal electrical activity with an ultrafast fluorescent voltage sensor. Nat Neurosci. 2014 Apr 22. Michael Lin
Voltage Fluorescent voltage reporters Archon 1 and Archon 2 (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) A robotic multidimensional directed evolution approach applied to fluorescent voltage reporters. Nat Chem Biol. 2018 Feb 26. pii: 10.1038/s41589-018-0004-9. Edward Boyden
Voltage Fluorescent voltage reporter Voltron (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) Bright and photostable chemigenetic indicators for extended in vivo voltage imaging. Science. 2019 Aug 1. pii: science.aav6416. Eric Schreiter
Voltage Green fluorescent voltage sensors Voltron2, Ace2N , and red voltage reporter VARNAM Sensitivity optimization of a rhodopsin-based fluorescent voltage indicator. Neuron. 2023 Mar 28:S0896-6273(23)00205-2. GENIE Project
Voltage Positive-going FRET voltage reporter Positron (Constitutive or Cre-dependent) A general approach to engineer positive-going eFRET voltage indicators. Nat Commun. 2020 Jul 10;11(1):3444. Eric Schreiter
Voltage Red fluorescent voltage sensor to detect neural activity (Ace-mScarlet) A high-speed, bright, red fluorescent voltage sensor to detect neural activity. Sci Rep. 2019 Nov 4;9(1):15878. Yiyang Gong
Voltage Red fluorescent voltage sensor to detect neural activity (FlicR1) A Bright and Fast Red Fluorescent Protein Voltage Indicator That Reports Neuronal Activity in Organotypic Brain Slices. J Neurosci. 2016 Feb 24;36(8):2458-72. Robert Campbell
Voltage Multicoloured voltage reporters (QuasAr2) Bright and fast multicoloured voltage reporters via electrochromic FRET. Nat Commun. 2014 Aug 13;5:4625. Adam Cohen
Voltage Fluorescent reporter for membrane voltage with improved brightness (QuasAr1 and QuasAr2) All-optical electrophysiology in mammalian neurons using engineered microbial rhodopsins. Nat Methods. 2014 Aug;11(8):825-33. Adam Cohen
Voltage Expression of both PROPS voltage indicator and GCaMP6f calcium sensor for bacteria Kralj Lab Constitutive Bacterial Electrophysiology Plasmids Joel Kralj
Voltage Voltage sensors for use in C. elegans (Arch(D95N), MacQ-mCitrine, QuasAr and QuasAr-mOrange) Rhodopsin-based voltage imaging tools for use in muscles and neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Aug 1. Alexander Gottschalk
Voltage Near-infrared fluorescent voltage indicator nirButterfly Screening and Cellular Characterization of Genetically Encoded Voltage Indicators Based on Near-Infrared Fluorescent Proteins. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2020 Nov 4;11(21):3523-3531. Vladislav Verkhusha

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Looking for a sensor for a different analyte, a sensor for gene-specific activity, or for popular biosensors in different expression constructs? Browse the table below or search for a biosensor by name, target, publication title or keywords (e.g. "RCaMP", "caspase", "Dynamic Visualization of mTORC1 Activity in Living Cells", "mitochondria").

ID Plasmid Description Gene/Insert Vector Type PI Publication

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